Nonimmigrant Visas are normally used for temporary employment. They are time-limited and are normally tied to the employer. They are usually much faster to obtain, and many people obtain nonimmigrant visas first before proceeding to a permanent visa.
Common types used by NC State University include
H-1B Visa: Employment-based visa limited to 3-year terms and tied to the employer
TN Visa: Employment-based visa for Canadian and Mexican professionals limited to three-year terms and tied to the employer
O-1 Visa: Employment-based visa for nationally and internationally recognized professors limited to length of project and tied to the employer
B-1 Visa: Also called a Visitor Visa, used for temporary visits for research, presentations, etc.
Potential Fines, Penalties, and Liabilities: Failure to follow USCIS and DOL regulations can result in penalties and liabilities to NC State