Nonimmigrant Visas are normally used for temporary employment. They are time-limited and are normally tied to the employer. They are usually much faster to obtain, and many people obtain nonimmigrant visas first before proceeding to a permanent visa.
Common types used by NC State University include
B-1 status: Also called a Visitor Visa, used for temporary visits for research, presentations, etc.
E-3 status: Employment-based status for Australian professionals limited to two-year terms which can be renewed indefinitely.
H-1B status: Employment-based status limited to two three-year terms and tied to the employer
O-1 status: Employment-based status for nationally and internationally recognized professors limited to length of project and tied to the employer
TN status: Employment-based status for Canadian and Mexican professionals limited to three-year terms and tied to the employer
Potential Fines, Penalties, and Liabilities: Failure to follow USCIS and DOL regulations can result in penalties and liabilities to NC State