|Begonia 'Whopper Rose Bronze Leaf'|
|Ipomoea batatas (Illusion® Garnet Lace)
cultivar name is unknown
|Ipomoea batatas 'Sweet Caroline Bronze'|
|Ipomoea batatas 'Sweet Caroline Raven'|
|Lantana camara (Bandana® Trailing Gold)
cultivar name is unknown
|Lantana camara 'Robpwcrm' (Luscious® Lemonade)|
|Petunia 'Ustuni6001m' (Supertunia® Vista Silverberry)|
|Verbena 'Usbenal11' 'Superbena® Large Lilac Blue)|
|Verbena ''Invebroich' (Superbena® Royale Iced Cherry)|
|Ipomoea batatas 'Sweet Caroline Sweetheart Red'|
|Lantana camara (Bandana® Peach)
cultivar name is unknown
|Lantana camara (Bandana® White)
cultivar name is unknown
|*Plants are arranged alphabetically.|
Agricultural Research Technician
Department of Horticultural Science
JC Raulston Arboretum
General Introductory Notes and Acknowledgements
Understanding Our Data
Plant Material Sources
Best of Breed
Leaders of the Pack
Early Season Leaders of the Pack
Late Season Leaders of the Pack
Cultivar Series Summaries
The Trial Gardens for seasonal color plant materials are located at NC State University within the JC Raulston Arboretum (JCRA) in Raleigh. The JCRA is a ten and a half acre site administered by the Department of Horticultural Science and located on 35° 47'N latitude, longitude 78° 42' W, with an elevation of 400 feet.
Plants to be entered into our trials are received in a variety of ways. About one third are germinated from seeds while the remainder originate as rooted cuttings or established cell plugs. Virtually all are grown within controlled greenhouse environments prior to placement in protected outdoor structures for hardening off. They were planted into their permanent trial bed locations on April 26, 2011. The predominant plant spacing in the trials was 18 inches × 24 inches (in-row x between-row spacing). Seven plants of each entry were used to evaluate landscape performance and ratings were taken weekly.
We are especially grateful to the North Carolina Commercial Flower Growers Association for their generous financial support of our student interns.
We thank the following companies for their support of material donations:
We are especially thankful to other departmental staff and the volunteers of the JC Raulston Arboretum who assisted in transplanting and maintaining the annual beds throughout the growing season … we couldn't have done it without you all!
This is recorded as the total number of weeks in flower throughout the entire season. It should give you an idea of whether or not a plant is best used for the whole season or as a "fill-in" for special displays. Obviously, those species grown for foliage interest alone, e.g. Acalypha, may score poorly in this column and should not be rejected based on this value alone!
Plants were given a visual rating weekly by the same person beginning May 20, 2011 (about three weeks after planting) through September 30, 2011. The overall rating was based on plant performance and appearance, including floriferousness, plant size and shape, and freedom from insect and disease problems. The rating scale ranged from 1 (very poor) to 5 (excellent) with 0.5 unit increments possible; a 0 rating indicated that all plants of the cultivar trial died.
The best way to really evaluate our trials is to come in person. The JCRA is open 365 days a year.
The first statistic that readers run to is likely the "all season average." This value represents overall performance for the entire summer season. However, realizing that there are many species/cultivars which may do better in one part of the growing season versus another, we also provide an "early season average" and "late season average" for each entry. The former is the average of the first 10 weeks of the evaluation period and the latter represents the end of the season. This information may be useful in planning short term plantings with high impact as well as for studying temperature preferences, life cycle changes, and/or the impact of photoperiod on plant performance. The "number of weeks rated above 3" gives you an idea of how consistently throughout the season an entry is an exemplary performer.
• "The Top 10" – this list shows the species/cultivars with the top ten "All Season Averages." These were our best overall performers. When the list exceeds ten, there were ties.
• "Leaders of the Pack" – lists all species/cultivars with an "All Season Average" of 3.0 or better. We consider this the arbitrary cutoff rating for a "significant performer" in Raleigh. This list shows all your best choices for planting, listed by plant name.
• "Leaders of the Pack – Early Season" – this shows entries with "Early Season Averages" of 3.0 or better based on the first 10 weeks of evaluation. This group may prefer cooler temperatures or only have a relatively short ornamental life, and might not show up on the "Leaders of the Pack" list above.
• "Leaders of the Pack – Late Season" – this shows entries with "Late Season Averages" of 3.0 or better based on the end of the season evaluations. They may prefer very warm temperatures or flower as daylengths start to shorten, again sometimes precluding them from inclusion on the overall "Leaders of the Pack" list.
• "Best of Breed" – shows the best performing cultivars in each species.
• "Summary by Series" – groups the information for cultivar series where appropriate. This can be a quick reference for related cultivars as well as a handy tool to judge the general performance of an entire series offered by a breeder/company.
• "Weekly Ratings" – evaluation given for each entry on a weekly basis.
Visit our Web site and help yourself!
Once at our Web site, be sure to subscribe to the Cuttings from the JC Raulston Arboretum to receive free, periodic updates from the JC Raulston Arboretum via e-mail, complete with digital images!
Summer 2011 was a repeat of last summer. It was extremely hot with long stretches of temperatures over 90°F and multiple days exceeding 100°F, including a record-breaking five consecutive 100°F+ days. This heat was followed by periods of normal temperatures with heavy rain.
Note: The precipitation and temperature charts were updated on November 9, 2011. The updated charts use on site data. The original charts used data from Reedy Creek Field Laboratory.
Sometimes I think that the one number most often overlooked in our report is the variance. Go to the "Leaders of the Pack" data tables and look for its column. The term itself may be intimidating in light of its mystery, but need not be as it can be most informative. Simply put, the lower the variance, the most alike all plants are in the group evaluated, and hence the greater the uniformity. For so many in the commercial landscaping sector, they live and die by uniformity because appearance can be everything. So, by using a selected variance value of 0.1 as our very tough cut-off, we can really see which plants are setting the standard for superb uniformity. In many cases our results have confirmed some excellent reputations, for others, it's a first time notice.
Whereas small variance values indicate excellent uniformity, the opposite can point out cultivars with a "mind of their own!" They are not necessarily a poor choice, just not ruler perfect. In this case, plants with variance values of 1.0 or more were highlighted for great differences observed during the season. To be fair, there are many reasons for a lack of uniformity, most likely of which would simply be the result of our normal or extreme weather. This year, it would be safe to assume that our exceptional drought and high temperatures had a significant impact on plant performance...but variance can also help us identify the very best for our area.
Please get in touch with these companies if you have specific questions regarding individual species and cultivars.
All-America Selections, 1311 Butterfield Road, Suite 310, Downers Grove, IL 60515-5606
Ball Horticultural Co., P.O. Box 335, West Chicago, IL 60185
J.P. Bartlett Co., Inc., 578 Boston Post Road, Sudbury, MA 01776
Ball FloraPlant, 622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL 63185
Ball Seed, P.O. Box 335, West Chicago, IL 60185
Danziger Flower Farm, 102 Doan Avenue North, Painesville, OH 44077
Dummen USA, West Layfayette, IN 47906
Ecke Ranch, P.O. Box 230488, Encinitas, CA 92023-0488
Floranova, 222 North A Street, Lompoc, CA 93436
Gro-Link, Inc., P.O. Box 5506, Oxnard CA 93031
Kieft-Pro-Seeds, P.O. Box 335, West Chicago, IL 60185
North Carolina Commercial Flower Growers, P.O. Box 58220, Raleigh, NC 27658
PanAmerican Seed, P.O. Box 335, West Chicago, IL 60185
Pleasant Acres Nursery, 5836 Breezy Pines Lane, Holly Springs, NC 27540
Proven Winners, 1021 River Ridge Lane, Saint Thomas, MO 65076
Sakata Seed America, 18095 Serene Drive, Morgan Hill, CA 95037
Selecta, P.O. Box 335, West Chicago, IL 60185
Syngenta Flowers, 6899 Winchester Circle, Suite 102, Boulder, CO 80301