The annual trial gardens at NC State University are located within the JC Raulston Arboretum, 4301 Beryl Road, in Raleigh. The Arboretum is an 8 acre site administered by the Department of Horticultural Science and located on latitude 35° 47'N, longitude 78° 42'W with an elevation of 400 feet.
Seedling and vegetatively derived plants were grown to transplant size in 2.5 inch x 2.2 inch containers, with most planted outdoors on 9 November 1999. The remaining selections were planted when transplant survival was determined to be optimized. Plant spacing in the trials was 10 inches x 12 inches (in-row x between-row spacing). Twelve plants of each entry were used to evaluate the performance of the cultivars. A total of 238 cultivars were evaluated with the majority being pansies (166 cultivars). Beds were fertilized with a pre-plant incorporation of 18 lbs./1000 square feet of 10-10-10, and every 6 weeks thereafter with broadcast applications of 15.5-0-0 through March. No pesticide applications were made during evaluation in order to document the impact of pests, and no major pest or disease problems were noted throughout the trial period.
Professor and Director
Horticulture Research Technician
Plants were given a visual rating by the same individual once a week for 20 weeks from 30 November 1999 through 11 April 2000. The rating was based on plant performance and appearance, including floriferousness, plant size and shape, and freedom from insect and disease problems. The rating scale ranged from 1 (very poor) to 5 (excellent), with 0.5 unit increments; a 0 rating indicated all seven plants of the cultivar trial died. Weekly ratings were averaged to provide an overall rating for the entire season to determine estimates of seasonal performance.
A cultivar that received a seasonal rating of at least 3.0 is considered an excellent choice for full winter season (November - April) display in the Raleigh area; a seasonal average of at least 2.6 indicates satisfactory performance; and a rating below 2.6 is a sign that our conditions were very stressful and a the cultivar is probably not a good choice for our area.
Pansies are divided into pure color and multi-color flower forms. Solid color cultivars are called "clear" whereas cultivars with distinct, dark blue or black flower centers are called "blotched" or "faced" pansies. There are cultivars with non-blue or non-black blotches, in which case that will be noted in the tables (e.g. Accord Yellow/Red Blotch). Other multi-colored pansies have white or light colored petal edges or non-matching petals altogether.....most of these also have a dark face. A slash ("/") is used to separate the major colors comprising multi-colored cultivars (e.g. 'Bingo Rose Frost' is listed as Rose/White in color).
There is growing interest in providing 12 month color in the landscape using bedding plants. We continue to examine different species which may have performance potential in the Raleigh area. In this regard, we also examined the performance of calendulas, dianthus, California poppies, dusty millers, verbascum, verbena, and miscellaneous ornamental winter vegetables.
Seed companies are the backbone of our trials and our thanks go out to this year's participants. They are acknowledged in our tables throughout this report by the abbreviations found below.
|SEED SOURCE ABBREVIATION||SEED SOURCE|
|BALL||Ball Seed Co., P.O. Box 335, West Chicago, IL 60515|
|BEN||Ernst Benary of Amer., Inc., 1444 Larson St., Sycamore, IL 60178|
|BR||Bodger Seeds, Ltd., 1800 N. Tyler Ave., S. El Monte, CA 91733|
|GLK||Gloeckner Seeds, 600 Mamaroneck Ave., Harrison, NY 10528|
|GOLD||Goldsmith Seeds, Inc., P.O. Box 1349, Gilroy, CA 95020|
|JOHNNYS||Johnny's Selected Seeds, Foss Hill Rd., Albion, ME 04910|
|NOV||Novartis Flower Seeds, Inc., 5300 Katrine Ave., Downers Grove, IL 60515|
|PA||Pan American Seed, 1017 W. Roosevelt Rd., West Chicago, IL 60185|
|PK||Park Seed Co., Cokesbury Rd., Greenwood, SC 29647|
|SAK||Sakata Seed America, Inc., P.O. Box 158, Wrens, GA 30833|
We also gratefully acknowledge the support by Fafard, Inc. (P.O. Box 26, Anderson, SC 29622) and the North Carolina Commercial Flowers Growers Association.
The average minimum and maximum temperatures for the trial months of November and December, 1999, and January - April, 2000, in Raleigh, North Carolina. The Historic minimums and maximums represent the 30 year period from 1961-1990.
Total precipitation for the Trial Period November and December 1999 and January through April 2000, in Raleigh, North Carolina. The Historic Mean represents an average total precipitation from the years 1948 through 1995.
Photoperiod length (sunrise to sunset) for Raleigh, North Carolina from October 1 - May 31.
The most significant event during the winter trials for 1999 - 2000 was January's historic snowstorm. While any measurable accumulation of snow is unusual for Raleigh, an amount in excess of 20 inches is historic. The entire trial area was covered completely for more than a week as temperatures were slow to warm up after the storm, and snowmelt was gradual. For some plants in the trials, this event was damaging; for others, the snow provided a deep blanket of insulation. With the exception of January, the majority of the trial period was characterized by less than average rainfall each month. This indicated that the drought of the preceding summer was continuing throughout the winter as well.
The average minimum temperature for each month for the trial period tended to be warmer than the average of the past 30 years. The average maximum temperature each month, however, showed more variability, with only November, December, February and March warmer than the historic means for those months.
The following were selected in the Winter Trials for their ability to display attractive landscape color throughout the majority of the season. At any one time, other species or entries may have made a better short-term showing, but the "Leaders of the Pack" were selected for consistent, dependable full-season performance in the winter landscape. All "Leaders" had an average seasonal rating of 3.0 or greater and only one cultivar per color was selected if several cultivars of the same color were rated 3.0 or better. Cultivars that tied for the highest rating in the same color were all chosen as "Leaders."
|Dianthus||Floral Lace Lilac||Purple||BALL|
|Pansy||Baby Bingo Lavendar Blue||Blue-Blotch||PA|
|Universal Plus True Blue||Blue-Clear||GOLD|
|Universal Plus Beaconsfield||Blue/Purple-Clear||GOLD|
|Universal Plus Mariner Mix||Blues||GOLD|
|Baby Bingo Beaconsfield||Purple & Yellow-Clear||PA|
|Clear Sky Purple||Purple-Clear||NOV|
|Fama Lilac Shades||Purple-Clear||BEN|
|Universal Plus Red Wing||Red & Yellow-Blotch||GOLD|
|Accord Clear Rose||Rose-Clear||GOLD|
|Fama Dark Eyed White||White-Blotch||BEN|
|Delta Pure Yellow||Yellow-Clear||NOV|
|Violas||Penny Azure Wing||Blue & White-Clear||GOLD|
|Penny Violet Beacon||Purple & Blue-Clear||GOLD|
|Penny Orchid Frost||Purple & White||GOLD|
|Penny Violet Flare||Purple & White||GOLD|
Those cultivars which display outstanding performance during our trials are designated as "Exceptional Performers." Their average seasonal rating puts them in the top 2% of all entries for that year. Growers, retailers, and landscape contractors are encouraged to consider these cultivars for their "color" requirements for the Raleigh area and similar regions. This winter trial period, the following 4 entries out of 238 received this status.
|Viola||Penny Violet Flare||3.5||GOLD|
|Viola||Penny Orchid Frost||3.5||GOLD|
Only those series represented by 3 or more cultivars are included in this summary. A rating of "1" is very poor performance and "5" is the best.
|SERIES||NO. TRIALED||SOURCE||AVG. RATING|
Several less commonly grown species were examined for winter landscape performance....some worked, some didn't, and still some showed promise.
California poppies showed some potential when planted in the fall. Given their need for long days for flowering, they did not exhibit flowers until well into late winter and very close to the termination of the winter trials in March. However, the plants themselves exhibited excellent winter hardiness as leafy rosettes. 'Mission Bells Mix' was the strongest cultivar. While we cannot recommend them yet, we will try them again in the future
As also observed in last year's report, calendulas flowered only up to the end of the calendar year 1999 when they succumbed to the repeated freezing temperatures. They did not survive the winter and, therefore, hold no promise as reblooming plants in the following spring in the Raleigh area.
Dusty millers have long been considered part of the summer annual landscape inventory. They are, however, also hardy perennials in the Raleigh area and might be considered for the same contrast purposes along with pansies. Their performance was mixed, and all cultivars ranked quite poorly in our trials. In our minds, however, they remain a viable candidate worthy of further evaluation.
Most of the verbenas were a total loss and did not survive the winter season completely. If they are to be considered useful in our area, this feature deserves additional attention by breeders.
The snapdragons survived the winter, although flowering was greatly diminished during the coldest months; they were on the way towards growing back from limited die-back by the end of the trial period.
Of the winter vegetables examined, the Swiss chard was most damaged by this time and all the ornamental kales were bolting, a feature we found to be acceptable from an ornamental perspective, as did many of our visitors. The colorful display provided by these species is worth the limited period that we can expect them to look their best.
The 'Lace Cherry' dianthus was the fastest to recover from the impact of winter and, like last year, was a good performing cultivar for winter use.
Pansies and Violas continue to dominate the winter color options, and as has been noted in the past, the Violas outshine them all. Most displayed greater vigor than their pansy cousins and were covered in flowers on incredibly uniform plant habits. All 4 of the Exceptional Performers were Violas and by a wide margin. In fact, 'Penny Violet Flare' was also on last year's list. Their relatively small flowers were produced in abundance and over a long period.
Despite their attractive landscape appearance, all orange-flowered pansy cultivars tended to be weaker and poorer performing than others, regardless of the series. This was also noted in last year's trials (1998-1999) so additional cultivar improvement is needed to be competitive in the Raleigh area.