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Friends of the Arboretum Newsletter

Number 5

May 1982

J. C. Raulston

Sorry to be late with this - seems to be the story of my life, but with the spring teaching commitments and the attraction of working in the arboretum at this most enjoyable gardening time of the yea, coupled with the sheer agony and dislike or writing - it has been easy to procrastinate and spend more time with plants than with pen. But I have a great deal to share from a most exciting spring and I think you'll enjoy this fairly lengthy report.

My last report ended with arrival back to NCSU after the sabbatical leave of a year. It was an abrupt return to "reality" with just about everything that could go wrong doing so. January and February were among the worst months of my life with the pile of work and people awaiting me with needs accumulated over a year demanding attention, the reality of "work and schedules" in teaching after a year of freedom away from that, the reality of winter after a year of springtime conditions in S.F. - not only the bitter freeze damage in the arboretum (more on that later) but at home with 26 frozen water pipes and the loss of an old heating system that went out - resulting in living a month without heat or water in midwinter!

But after that bleak beginning, things have gotten continually better with a wonderful spring. Many have asked me (an I wondered myself) it there would be any problems of returning to my job at NCSU after living in California and seeing the best of the world's horticulture (like the song "how are you going to get them back on the farm after they've seen Pairee?"). But I can happily report that this spring has been as exciting horticulturally here in N.C. as last year's in California; I'm having more fun horticulturally than at any time since my high school gardening days - getting into entire groups of plants new to me and learning so much; and that at this point there isn't a person or position anywhere that I know of that I'd rather trade jobs with, for the teaching and arboretum development are exactly what I love. It's really a nice feeling to realize that.

Enough of that - I want to get into a brief review of the spring with some observations on happenings of this most exciting period for both me and the arboretum. Interims of travel and gardens some highlights: I finally got to meet Miss Elizabeth Lawrence and to see her garden in Charlotte - a gracious and wonderful woman, a beautiful exciting garden filled with the treasures one would expect and stimulating "plant talk"; the Bartlett Arboretum and tree labs in Charlotte and the fine collection there; Dr. Donald Kellam's acres of rhododendrons at his home in Charlotte (in a snowstorm with snow piling on open flowers which were frozen by that night!); Allen Bush's nursery - Holbrook Farms - at Fletcher with many exciting plants; Geoff Driscoll's fine collection of dwarf conifers near Chapel Hill; and return visits to Loleta Powell's wonderful garden and the UNC Coker Arboretum and Duke Gardens. On the class trip to Charleston - Savannah there were return visits to old favorite gardens and new experiences seeing Savannah with Marmon Thompson, an NCSU grad. now in charge of the city landscape; the best seafood meal of my life at the Palmer Restaurant out toward the ocean from Savannah - buckets of oysters and a magnificent shellfish platter - a must if you're ever in Savannah; and a stop on the return at Woodlander's in Aiken, S.C. - wonderful range of incredible plants with far too short time there. On the D.C. - N.Y.C. class trips there were the usual stops at many places - with new additions of Behnke's Nursery in D.C.) on U.S. 1 north of the beltway in Beltsville) - an incredible retail nursery and a must if you're in D.C.; Duke Gardens in Sommerville, N.J. - the private estate of Doris Duke (open for tours by reservation 201-722-3700) with 11 gardens in a 1 1/2 acre greenhouse representing historic and regional gardens of the world - all excellent but the French and Chinese especially impressive/ visits to the fine Vermeulen and Princeton Nurseries in J.N.; the Tyler Arboretum in PA. with magnificent huge old trees planted in the 1840-70 period; the Swarthmore College campus in PA. with superb campus plantings of over 5,000 species of plants and the Wister Garden adjacent to campus at peak of rhodendrons and tree peonies - magnificent!

And, of course, nothing is as interesting as one's own baby and the NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) has been the most exciting and fun of all to watch all spring. This spring has had several rough periods - the midwinter low of about 2-4°F in January in which we lost Koelreuteria bipinnata, Camellia sasanqua White Doves, all the Gardenias, Pittosporum Wheeler's Dwarf and centrochinensis, Lagerstroemia Petite Red Imp and Seminole, Citrus taiwanensis and Lonicera davidii, micranthum, and pentaphylla and Magnolia Urbna - disappointing losses. Plants killed to the ground and resprouting from the base included Eurya emarginata, Serissa foetida, Feijoa sellowiana, Viburnum suspensum, Vitex rotundifolia, Ilex dimorphophylla, and the Escallonias, (which has been on annual occurrence for them). Rabbits killed the Chaenomeles Hime and Stanford Red; Cupressocyparis Stapehill was girdled below the soil line and broke off in a windstorm; Hosta Kakuti Yakumensis, Hypericum yakusimanum, and Tsuga diversifolia all died for unknown reasons. A beautiful microclimate and competition effect showed up with an entire row of miniature roses (Crazy Quilt, Toy Clown, Shakespearean Festival, June Time, Thundercoud and Carmela) dying next to a holly hedge while another entire row of cultivars 18" further away were not affected at all. In the greenhouse we lost Lomatia longifolia, rots (difficult to handle 200 species with widely varying needs on a single bench).

Then in April we had the night of 25° when everything was actively growing and many plants were fully leafed out. In the commercial nursery industry the plants hardest hit were Japanese Maples with losses of thousands of trees of all sizes - a freak occurrence with plants apparently just at a critical stage of growth. We lost the cultivars Garnet, Sango Kaku, Burgundy Lace, Oshio-Beni, and Hanami Nishiki - and others were damaged in varying degree. The big specimen cutleaf maple was damaged but thankfully has recovered. Roses were hard hit in many gardens and we saw an interesting effect in the arboretum - we had moved most of the bushes to a new bed in the spring which delayed shoot emergence and those plants came through the late freeze well whereas unmoved plants flushed just a little earlier and most were completely killed.

Other plants severely damaged were Prunes campanulata (black to basal trunk), many Magnolias (a 7' tall denudata to the ground), Cupressus macrocarpa (dead - whereas C. m. Donard Gold and C. m. pygmea nearby showed no injury), Morus alba contorta (to base), Diospyros kaki (6" back on most limbs), Eriobotrya japonia (1' on all limbs), several Cedrus deodar cultivars (new growth nd some limbs), Quercus acuta (severe damage - defoliated and loss of 1' of tips), and loss of Wisteria flower buds just before bloom. On the positive side there were unexpected survivals - in some cases no injury on plants that have been devastated in past years, part of the continuing fascination and mystery of plants.

Survivals of expected marginal material with no killback included: Michelia figo, Yucca whippeli, X Pyracomeles vilmorinii, Camellia reticulata Buddha, Glyptostrobus lineatus, Taxodium mucronatum, and Quercus suber. Plants surviving and sprouting back from the ground that absolutely should be dead included: Baccharis pilularis Twin Peaks, Hebe speciosa and cupressoides, Phormium tenax, Heteromeles arbutifolia, and Pyrrosia lingua carymbifura. So we have a mixture of success and failure - part of the nature of gardening and to be expected.

Others share the problems - D.C. had the worst weather and plant damage I've seen there in the 20 years I've been visiting there - the camellia collections completely gone at the National Arboretum, privet hedges killed to the ground downtown and enormous magnolias around government buildings totally defoliated and severely damaged. Even mild England which we envy for this "easy-gardening" climate was devastated this winter with record unseasonable low temperatures killing long established plants and severe ice and snow destroying conifers and broadleafed evergreens - probably the worst winter on gardens there in 50 years. A writer in The Garden from the RHS wrote: "I have found this winter awe-inspiring. The simple power of the elements to undo carefully-laid plans is majestic. I though i could grow all sorts of exotic trees and shrubs which have got by in southern gardens long enough to be in the reference books as "hardy". But when it got cold enough to kill olearias, hebes, cistus, ceanothus, pyrancantha, abutilon, escallonias and even some hydrangeas, and when the dark glossy self-confident Monterey Pine was turned a poor biscuit-color, as dead as the funny out-of-place eucalyptus, I had a completely different vision of the garden. Suddenly it was the beauty of the oaks and birches and Scots pines that overwhelmed me. It was the fitness of the plants that belong that was all you could want in the dependable "iron-clad" plants for the structure and background of a landscape - the 70-90% of the planting that will always be good - and use the marginals for the interest and excitement they can offer and accept their occasional loss relying on the totally hardy to carry the planting on.

A few notes from the spring recordbook:

Major development events in the arboretum this spring included design and installation of a new model garden by the HS 416 Planting Design Class under the direction of Tracy Segner. It is a small townhouse garden with arbor, decking, paving and a walk with a variety of plants for year-round beauty. Students involved in the design and construction included: Clara Allen, Don Brandt, Jeff Bridges, Bill Hester, Mary Kelly, Malcolm McLean, Cara Mihok, Connie Morgan, Jewell Seymour, and Chris Wise.

The Japanese Garden site was graded to its final form and plantings have begun with an exciting day when Mr. Archie Beal of Tree's Unlimited of Raleigh donated his huge Big John Tree Spade and crew to move plants at the arboretum. In a very short time 4 beautiful specimen plants were moved to the Japanese Garden site to give it some "age and character" as development continues. The plants included a 10-12' Lagerstroemia faurei (which promptly shriveled all foliage, turned black and looked totally dead - after 4 weeks of teasing me it suddenly leaved our everywhere and looks great).

Bed layout of the west 4 acres of the arboretum has begun, bark mulch mountains have been hauled in, irrigation lines are being laid, and the first planting of cultivar trees for the shade tree collection has been made with 40 - 8-12' trees from Princeton Nursery in N.J. By fall the "shape" of the west half of the arboretum will be established, beds laid out and much planting done.

On Friday, June 4, Ed and Peggy Croom were in the arboretum. Many of our horticulture students have taken Ed's course, at NCSU entitled Plants and Civilization. Peggy and Ed felt the arboretum was their favorite spot in the Raleigh area and one that would have lasting memories as they return in the future. Ed will finish his dissertation this summer and they will both begin teaching in Mississippi this fall. Congratulations and best wishes to them.

On Sunday, June 6, the Southall Memorial Garden was formally dedicated by Pi Alpha Xi, honorary society in floriculture and ornamental horticulture, which had provided funds and labor for development of the garden. An advance work day had the garden looking its very best, excellent weather occurred, and about 75 guests and friends of Col. Southall gathered to dedicate the garden and honor his memory. Col. Southall taught plant materials at NCSU from 1966 to 1978, dearly loved students and plants, and was honored as a outstanding teacher of the university. He developed brain cancer and died in 1979. The garden was developed for the memory of a person who loved students and taught many the joy of learning new plants.

Support of many kinds from many sources has come to us during the spring. Major financial support from the NCSU Student Horticultural Club, Pi Alpha Xi, and the Progressive Farmer Publishing Co. has helped greatly as have major plant donations by Princeton Nurseries, Rhododendron Farm, The National Arboretum, Brookside Gardens, The Rhododendron Species Foundation, and many individuals and nurseries that have given plants.

The good renewal rate of existing members of the Friends and many new additions during the sprig has doubled our membership to about 150 members. This extra support is much needed and appreciated - and has allowed us to continue development and maintenance at satisfactory levels. As wonderful as this increase has been - we need funds the last 3 years and which will end in December. The next year is our critical period - maintenance needs multiply, funds drop, and the audience with greatest interest in support is already with us so another doubling will be much more difficult - but very essential. Can you twist an arm and bring on one more member? Your support is wonderful, essential and very appreciated.

It's an EXCITING time in the arboretum!! Who can spare the time to write newsletters:

Favorite Quotes from Spring Reading

Great Gardens of Britain - G. S. Thomas

"Committees are unsatisfactory for running gardens; all great gardens have been made by an individual or a succession of individuals."

"A first class head gardener requires longer training than a surgeon or lawyer."

"Garden art is infinite and never static - varies from year to year - the effect can never be guaranteed, whatever the skill or experience is brought forth to achieve it."

"It is a simple matter to plant trees in straight lines, but informal groupings will test the sensitivities of the most experienced planter and the smaller the groups the more difficult they are to place."

"For the best building and planting...the architect and gardener must have some knowledge of each others business, and each must regard with feelings of kindly reverence the unknown domains of the other's higher knowledge." Gertrude Jekyll.

"Praise the large estate; but cultivate a small one." Virgil.

Daffodil Evaluations - 1982

Although with summer heat and humidity upon us now and probably the last thing in a gardeners mind is daffodil bloom - planning for next year's spring can be a good excuse for a retreat to the air conditioner and stacks of catalogs. This is the first season of bloom from a new planting and thus not a good reflection of actual established plant performance because of differences in dormancy, chilling, etc. of bulbs received from varying sources. There was a noticeable difference in bloom date on the same cultivar in the arboretum from older plantings compared to "new bulbs." Weather has a great effect of course and a cold week (3/14 - 3/18) can hold bloom at a fixed stage and warm weather explode everything at once. Our bloom season spanned 10 weeks with the first bloom of Bamboo in 2/14 and the last bloom of Geranium fading on 4/26. Peak of the season display was about 3/20 4/5.

As a complete neophyte with no knowledge of real daffodil "quality" I would probably horrify those who "know" daffodils with my evaluations but a few that I "liked a lot" (in reality, to paraphrase Will Rogers - "I don't think I met a daffodil this spring I didn't like") included: Bamboo - the first of early flowers always mean more than later ones - tiny little Bamboo remains more in my mind than drifts of hug flowers later in the season, Allurement - early and a cup of beautiful soft pink, Flaming meteor and Inca Gold - two spectacular large showy yellow types, Pink Perfume - overcame my doubts and wa truly a fragrant daffodil that even my weak nose could enjoy - a drift of them would be wonderful but at $8 a bulb, one is a delightful treat, Prof. Einstein - appeared to be the best red cupped variety, Windblown - a massive fully double white and yellow flower (easily downed in wind and rain). By midseason, everything was showy and I liked them all. One important lesson I learned - worth remembering in buying any hobbyist plant - price usually reflects newness, uniqueness, and propagating ability and may have no relationship to plant quality. Some gift plants sent with the order valued at $20@ were far inferior (to my untrained eye) to old standard and inexpensive cultivars.

Bloom sequence (date of first bloom open) recorded at 2 day intervals was as follows:

Feedback Sheet Summary

In the last mailing, I sent a feedback sheet to get feelings of the membership and suggestions for improvements. There was a high return rate of about 25%, unusual for questionnaires, and I think reflective of the great interest and support among the arboretum's membership. A brief summary of responses:

Things like about Friends

Highest interest seemed in use of Newsletter catalog listings for sources of new plants - people are apparently actively hunting plants and have a hard time finding them, appreciate new sources. Evening lectures and plant distributions also ranked high. Many mentioned they were happy to be able to support a good cause (and we again thank you for that support!)

Things disliked about Friends

Few complaints - most were on the evening lectures - too far away to attend, too few lectures and would like more (sorry one per quarter is all I can manage - rarity makes them seem more interesting - how"s that for an excuse on my part?!), would like more newsletters (if you knew what absolute agony writing is for me and what I go through to do everything I can to avoid it - you'd be amazed to get any al all! I'm, amazed myself that I've gotten any out!).

Suggestions for additions or improvements in Friends

More programs (sorry, 1 per quarter), more arboretum tours (yes - easier to do here than when living in S.F.), move the arboretum to Charlotte to make it easier to visit! (I doubt I can manage that, but exciting things are happening behind the scenes that looks like we will be encouraging and supporting a number of new arboretums around the state), more plant nd seed distributions (likely), more publicity to make more of the public aware of the arboretum's existence (coming), plant exchange night for members (I like this idea - done at Calif. Hort. Soc. meetings - see announcements list for a first trial), better labeled plants ( I know, I know! We're working on it - 500 new labels now out, hopefully everything labeled by midsummer and begin on permanent laminated labels before fall)

Suggestions for newsletter articles and evening lectures

Many different topics but my favorite was "Southern gardening for damn Yankees! I can't seem to manage the heavy clay soils, soaking rains or drought." (me neither!).

Many thanks to all who took the time to respond. Your comments and suggestions are quite important in evaluating our programs. We can't do everything we would like, but ill try to do all that we can with time and resources available.

New Plant Catalogs of Interest

Kurt Bluemel, Inc. 2543 Hess Road, Fallston, MD 21047 (301-537-7229). I've long promoted the greater use of ornamental grasses and sedges in N.C. as attractive and easy to grow ornamental plants - but the only source till now was Blue Mount Nursery (in the sources listing). I'm very excited to add Bluemel's mail order catalog to this list as it is the finest selection I've seen anywhere - 120 different grasses and sedges - mostly priced $2-3@ with a few to $10. A wonderful and exciting list and I'm anxious to expand our arboretum collection with new things from this listing.

Marcia's - Marcia C. Wilson, 255 Galeston Road, Brownsville, TX 78521 (512-541-2142). (Price list - $1.00). I try to keep my discussion here to hardy landscape plants but easily get sidetracked by appealing miscellaneous plants groups. Marcia's list is of Amaryllis and other rare bulbs - Many Amaryllis, Crinums (33 different ones), Hymenocallis (12 types), Zephyranthes (14 types), etc. If you've ever had a hard time finding your Boophone, Scadoxus, Rhodophiala, Veltheimia, or Alophia - this is just the list for you. Prices $1 -$200/bulb - most run $5-15.

Camellia Forest, K. M. Parks, P. O. Box 291, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (919-967-5529). A new nursery carrying the hardier camelias $3-6, other plants very reasonably priced, mostly $1-5, with a few to $10. Plants can be mail ordered or picked up at the nursery by appointment.

The Cotton Boll, P. O. Box 156, Hayneville, AL 36040. A little seed list of about 50 "weird and unusual" plants (e.g. African baobab tree, gourds, mangrove, tobacco (!)).

Another group of garden plants rarely represented in the retail garden sales business (except California where many garden centers carry them) are aquatic plants. A couple of beautiful aquatic catalogs received this spring are: Lilypons Water Gardens, Lilypons, Maryland 21717 ($2.50 catalog) and Van Ness Water Gardens, 2460 North Euclid Avenue, Upland, California 91786 ($2 catalog). We're about 2-3 years away from these groups of plants at the arboretum, but hopefully someday - some very beautiful things.

Robert Fincham, 425 N. Fifth Street, Leighton, PA 18235 (215-377-1495) (listing for 2 - 20 stamps). Dwarf conifers, standard conifers, deciduous trees.

Louisiana Nursery, Rt. 7, Box 43, Opelousas, La 70570 (318-948-3696). A specialty mail order firm wit two catalogs available. A daylilies and Louisiana iris catalog ($1) which also includes a good selection of cultivars of I. virginica, I. versicolor, I. pseudacous, I. siberica, and I. spuria (no bearded iris). More to the point of the woody plant collections represented in the arboretum, they also have a "Special magnolia and Odd Plant Catalog" ($2) which lists a wide variety of unusual plants - vines, aquatics, hostas, native plants, many magnolias, rare shrubs, and shade, flowering, and fruit trees.

Book News

With the mad rush of the spring semester teaching and the lure of the spring glories of the arboretum, my pleasure reading has slipped badly in quantity, but thankfully has been rich in quality. I cannot recommend too highly the new book: The Essential Earthman by Henry Mitchell (Indiana University Press, 244 p., $12.95). He writes a gardening column for the Washington Post that is a masterful blend of philosophy and garden experience. The first 6 pages are alone worth the price of the book. One quote "It is not nice to garden anywhere. Everywhere there are violent winds, startling once-per-five centuries floods, unprecedented droughts, record-setting freezes, abusive and blasting heats never known before. There is no place, no garden, where these terrible things do not drive gardeners mad." You must get and read this book - and afterwards (if you can part with it) it makes a fine gift.

Another book in this same vein which was just published and which received just 2 days before this newsletter goes out is Southern Gardens, Southern Gardening by William Lanier Hunt of Chapel Hill (Duke University Press, 191 p.) It is compilation of writing from the gardening columns he has written from 2926 to the present, arranged in calendar sequence through the year. Although just into the first few pages, I'm finding it very enjoyable and interesting. A valuable addition to the garden literature of the south.

Two exciting acquisitions for reference and reading pleasure are Gertrude Jekyll's books - Colour Schemes for the Flower Garden (326 p. original edition 1908, reprinted 1982 - $29.50) an Wood and Garden (377 p. Original edition 1899, reprinted 1982 - $29.50). The Jekyll books and writings are among the most significant horticultural literature and have been long out of print with copies bringing hundreds of dollars apiece in the rare books market. This reprinting is a most welcome event. The books have been published by and can be mail ordered from: Antique Collectors' Club, 5 Church Street, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England. They have also reprinted her Gardens for Small Country Houses and Garden Ornaments.

While on the subject of England and fine books, for those hardcore fine rare book fanciers - I would call their attention to a firm new to me that I hope to explore thoroughly on my visit to England this August - Watch House Rare Books, 43 Belsize park Gardens, London NW3 4JJ, England (01-586-3983) (Catalog $2). A superb source list of choice rare and out-of-print books ranging from $10 to a 1601 Clusius (of Leiden Bot. Garden fame) at about $7,000. A wonderful wish list of exceptional books.

Another source of garden books new to me is: Universe Books, Dept. 80, 381 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016.

Also new on garden books is David and Charles, North Pomfret, Vermont 05053 (802-457-1911). I understand they have a new manual from Hillier's Nursery in England - The Hillier Colour Dictionary of Trees & Shrubs which discusses 3,500 trees and shrubs and has 600 color illustrations. I've not yet seen it but sound very good.

For those seriously interested in dwarf conifers, I would call you attention to a superb newsletter called Dwarf Conifer Notes which is printed by Theophrastus Books, P.O. box 458, Little Compton, RI 02837 and distributed free of charge to those requesting it. Since it is published in limited quantity and sent as a service to collectors, I would ask that we not abuse this valuable public service and that it not be requested if of only minor interest to yo. It describes rare cultivars and cultivar difference - superb information for the specialist.

An excellent catalog of a wide variety of books is available from Carolina Biological Supply Company, 2700 York Road, Burlington, NC 27215

When the major gardening problems that are universal and inevitable get to the point that you're about to crack - I highly recommend for fast, fast relief a new book: Gardening - A dictionary for Weedpullers, Slugcrushers, and Backyard Botanists by Henry Beard and Roy McKie (Workman Publishing, 95 p., $4.95). Contains definitions of common horticultural terms (e.g. - Gazebo - explosive sound produced by hay fever sufferers; or Perennial - any plant which, had it lived, would have bloomed year after). Wonderful!


The following article is a brief outline I put together for my HS 531 course this spring that reflects several years of thinking about native plant: exotic plant usage and philosophy. Much is written about native plants and there are "native plant people" - both of which often get into a belief that there is something mystically different or unique to plants with this designation. In this paper I'm trying to bring "logic and reality" (i.e. - my own set of personal prejudices) to this area - at least make people think a bit about often repeated "obvious fact".

NOTES ON DEVELOPMENT OF A PHILOSOPHY

FOR USE OF NATIVE PLANTS IN THE LANDSCAPE

(An uncomplicated paper evolving in development)

J. C. Raulston - February 1982

"Native plant" as a concept for use in landscaping is normally important more as a philosophical statement of the user than as a biological reality. Somewhat like the term "organic" - has certain emotional connotations - e.g. "organic" peat - there is no such thing as inorganic peat but people will pay more or use a package so labeled because of what it means to them at their level of awareness and understanding. Often we hear Organic:Native = good; Non-organic: Exotic = bad. It is used as an easy automatic classification scheme.

"Native" is an indefinite concept - what is really meant by "native"? - to the site (at what historic period?0, to country, to region, to state, to continent, to world? Geographic and political boundaries have no relation to native ranges or adaptability. Palmettos and Carolina hemlock are both N.C. natives and neither is suitable for Raleigh.

Adaptability of plants is affected greatly by site conditions - are you dealing with a "natural undisturbed" site (few are totally undisturbed) or a manmade site? You can have great changes in soil (top layer removal, compaction, rubble), water levels, light exposure, temperatures as a site is developed. A shade moist woodland site supporting ferns, azaleas and hemlocks may be transformed into one with environmental conditions similar to midwestern plains - sunny, hot, dry, poor soils. The field of forestry (Dr. Zobel) recognizes that after clearcutting, often (not always) better adaptability comes from new introduced species than what grew there, or that the existing species may not regrow well due to changes in the site conditions.

In California people in one city pushed legislation to plant only native species - the native plant professionals that were brought in to testify objected and overruled saying none of the native species existing there were suitable for the new conditions of the urban habitats.

Proponents of native plant use often cite as justification - "natives are better adapted to an area and are insect and disease free." Thoreau has a gentle quote about looking at only what one wants to see with the story of a man who strongly claimed that one could not live as a vegetarian as mean wa required to build muscle - while he followed a ton of oxen through the field all day as they pulled a heavy plow fueled on grain and grass alone. Many of our most aggressive weed plants are exotics that vastly outperform (in growth) native materials - can these plants are exotics that vastly outperform (in growth) native materials - can these be considered less adapted? Many native plants have extremely limited habitats and highly specialized site requirements and many exotics have wide distribution (and vice versa) e.g. the oriental arborvitae is almost a universal plant - adaptable in most states from Fairbanks to Miami and swamps to deserts. The dogwood is a superb plant and highly desired yet it has dozens of insect and disease problems and thousands die annually in N.C. landscapes. If enough plants of any type are planted - chances are good some insect will find it a desirable host plant and build numbers on those monoculture populations, e.g. honeylocust from '50's to '70's. Many serious diseases are not native and have been introduced from other areas and native species may have little or no resistance, e.g. American elm and chestnuts. Others such as magnolia and sweet gum may have very few problems. Also, many problems are "site" problems that affect exotic and natives equally - poor drainage, heat loads, air pollution, etc.

One cannot use native habitat as the only guide to potential adaptability. Geographic barriers such as mountains, deserts, water features may have prevented spread to areas of potential habitats. Some when "released" in cultivation are extremely useful, e.g. Torrey pine and Monterey Cypress in California have tiny native habitats but are grown as superb ornamentals and forest lumber trees in many areas of the world. Often propagation conditions (seedling survival) determines range of distribution in nature, whereas if humans propagate, move and plant them - the established trees may have wide uses, e.g. bald cypress and river birch are naturally found only in stream wetland areas because seedlings in the first month are extremely susceptible to any dryness, but the trees perform well on hot, dry upland areas of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas when planted there. One cannot always predict behavior from know habitat, e.g. the Florida Torreya is one of the rarest trees in North America with a total range of 2 miles on the banks of one river in Florida - it would not be expected to have much cold hardiness but in trials it grows at least into N.Y. to -5°F.

Adaptability is often cultural. One of the major areas for landscaping losses today is establishment of container grown plants because of moisture relations in this system - natives and exotics have equal problems here. People often look at seeded windflowers as a simple, easy way to landscape or plant low-maintenance areas. In reality most of these attempts are total failures. Research by Doubrava at nCSU showed that site preparation and care is as essential for natives as exotics. A seed is a seed; and native or exotic are equally affected by drought, high temperature, wind stress, damping-off, etc. In nature many windflowers are pioneer species on newly disturbed sites in an ecological succession and are difficult to maintain in a permanent setting.

Another philosophical opinion area s the difficulty of accepting cultivars of native species by many people. Somehow its OK to go dig and use a random assortment of wild seedlings, but terribly wrong to find a very good individual in the wild, propagate it and have many identical good plants.

In talking to many people in many areas ranging from the Saratoga Horticultural Foundation in California to the Arnold ARboretum at harvard, I've tried to identify the reasons for the often one-sided view many people have about native:exotic plants. Although other reasons are often cited (better adaptation, insect and disease free, etc.) it is still a philosophical decision and (at a subconscious level, one the user is usually unaware o) apparently most often is a practical way to handle the problems of dealing with the sheer bewildering volume an variety of information existing on all plants that could be potentially used. The world of plants is indeed terrifying and intimidating to a beginner. If one can arbitrarily decide that 95% of the available material is totally unacceptable, the mastering of information becomes much more approachable and one does not need to take the time, effort and energy to evaluate plant individuals - much the same way that we all often deal with life and society by making blanket decisions that "all (name your pet category) businessmen, students, women, Italians, government officials, gays, lawyers, blacks, landscape architects, etc. are _____ (fill in your own value judgement)" - in reality sometimes true, sometimes not - and normally not even used by the used in a malicious manner but just as a coping device of simplifying the staggering array of value judgements that must continually be made by everyone - plants simply become one more. Ideally one would look at the potentials and adaptability of each plant available - but this is difficult and the information often is simply not available anywhere.

None of the above is to imply native plants should not be used for I strongly promote the use of many superb native plants - my personal feelings (again a value judgement - opinion) can be summarized as follows:

  1. Reasons to use native plants:
    1. To maintain the "character" of a "natural" site (often a decision on what time period of that site is necessary; but "character" can also be handled by exotics of similar appearance that are indistinguishable to any but extreme specialists).
    2. To fit the psychological needs of the client who has a strong value judgement on the subject.
    3. Because of the highly desirable plant characteristics and adaptations of the individual plants - foliage, flowers, bark, fruit, shape, season, tolerances, etc. (Half of the plants on my "plants needed in the N.C. nursery industry reference sheets are native and dozens more should be produced and used).
  2. Reasons to not use exclusively native plants:
    1. By using only natives you eliminate a wide spectrum of potentials - if you consider all plants possible there is more to choose from to fill highly individual specialized needs (an evergreen tree with red flowers in August of fastigate shape tolerant to salts, heat and compacted soils may not be growing in the woods of N.C.). An artist can do great work with white paper and a lead pencil (e.g. - Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Durer) but the art world has a certain richness because of marble, wood, oils, watercolors and neon as well. England has 5 native evergreen trees, Kansas has 1 - should those areas use only those plants when dozens or hundreds perform well there?
    2. Specifying native plants that are rare, endangered or not produced in commercial trade results in exploitation of native populations and many serious problems exist nationwide (and worldwide) with such things as cacti, orchids, windflowers, carnivorous plants and others. Only use materials that are commercially available from nursery propagated stock.

New additions to the NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) - Spring 1982

There have been so many I'll just give the names without description or source. 40 heaths and heathers including: Erica tetralix - Pink Star, Rubra; Erica terminalis; ERica cinera - Violacea, Cevennes, Appleblossom, Golden Drop; Erica ciliaris - Mrs. Gill, Maweana, Stoborough; Erica carnea - Springwood White, Pinbright Rose, Alan Coates; Calluna vulgaris - Tom Thumb, Cuprea, J. H. Hamilton, Foxhollow, Aurea, Gnome Pink, Sister Anne, H. E. Beale.

Rhododendron - Chinsayi, R. forgesii, R. serpyllifolium, R. crassum, R. insigne, R. augustinii, R. hyperythrum, R. wallichii, R. campylogynum, R. pseudochrysanthuym, Rochell, Moniz #26, Rosyln, Besse Howell, Moniz #5, Persia, Nancy of Robbin Hill, Caroline Orchid, Powder Puff, Haag, Enor Hotchkiss, Nova Zembal, Mary Belle, Wilsonii, Blue Ridge, True Treasure.

Azalea - R. prunifolium, Pink Cascade.

Hemerocallis - Ruffled Apricot, Look, Forecast, Midnight Medley, Brahmus, Velvet Butterfly, Jennifer Grovatt, Rocket City, Fanny Stadler, Mary Lily, Erin Prairie, Baruch, Altar Piece, Satin Silk, Modern Mood.

Dwarf Iris - S. Black, Doll Dance, Knick Knock, Grandma's Hat, Fashion Lady, Little Charmer.

Iris siberica - Tycoon, Lights of Paris, Court Jester, Clear Pond, Cambridge, Snow Queen, Ceasar's Brother, Big Blue.

Zelkova serrata - Village Green, pendula, variegata.

40 ferns including: Interrupted, Ostrich, Silvery Glade, Lady, Narrow Beechfern, Walking, Japanese Painted, Bulblet, Toothed Woodfern, Evergreen Woodfern, Hayscented, Oak, Goldie's, New York, American Maidenhair, Royal, Cinnamon, Christmas, Crested Woodfern, Brawns Holly, Ebony Spleenwort, Polypodium vulgare, Adiantum pedatum subpumilum, Dryopteris spinulosa, Polystrichum aculeatum gracillimum, Ahtyrium filix-femina variant, Pteris aquilina, athyrium goeringianum, and the most spectacular of all - Dryopteris ludoniciana.

Cedrus - libani nana, libani glauca pendula, libani brevifolia, deodara aurea, deodara pendula, deodara albospicata, atlantica aurea.

Tilia - cordata, cordata Greenspire, euchlora, tomentosa, americana Redmond.

Abies - concolor Candicans, lasiocarpa arizonica, nobilis aurea, nobilis glauca.

Acer palmatum - dissectum roseomarginatum, roseomarginatum, versicolor, dissectum Filigree, Crimson Queen, Sango Kaku.

Pinus - densiflora umbraculifera nana, ayacahuite, strobus contorta.

Cornus - paniculata, mas, flavimera lutea, stolonifer, Cherokee Chief, canadensis.

Cornus kousa - Summer Stars, Gold Star, Snowboy, Red, Pink, Dwarf Pink.

Syyrax japonica - dwarf, pendulous, pink-flowered, S. pulverulenta, S. Americana, S. grandifolia.

Jasminum - officinale grandiflora, humile revolutum, mesnyi, officinale.

Juniperus - virginiana prostrata, silicicola, conferta Blue Pacific.

Amelanchier - grandiflora, alnifolia, cumulus, Robin Hill Pink, pmuila.

Aesculus - octandra, parviflora, hippocastanum, hippocastanum baumanni, georgiana.

Ilex - cornuta Hume, Dragon Lady, opaca Cove Hill, rotunda, myrtifolia (yellow-fruited), cassine (yellow-fruited).

Lonicera - sempervirens, sempervirens flava, flava

Acer platanoides - Emerald Queen, Summershade, Crimson King.

Acer saccharum - bonfire, Columnare, Goldspire, Green Mountain.

Acer rubrum - October Glory, Columnare; A. pseudoplatanus.

Malus - Amerian Beauty, Pink Perfection, Snowcloud.

Cragaegus - oxycantha Superba, toba.

Viburnum - X chesapeak, X Eskimo, plicatum f. tomentosum Shasta.

Hamamelis - mollis brevipetala, Arnold Promise.

Chamaecyparis - pisifera Gekko Hiba, pisifera Hakko Hiba, obtusa nana gracilis (8 beautiful specimens for the Japanese garden).

Sambucus nigra - falverulenta, albovariegata.

Fagus sylvatica - purpurea pendula, tricolor.

Fraxinus - americana Autumn Purple, lanceolata Summit, lanceolata Marshall's.

Gleditsia triacanthos inermis - Rubylace, Shademaster, Sunburst.

Ginkgo biloba Princeton Sentry Pyrus calleryana Redspire

Sophora japonica Regent Carpinus betulus fastigata

ercidiphyllum magnificum pendula Chionanthus virginiana

Cladrastrus lutea Aronia melanocarpa

Picea pungens glauca prostrata Phellodendron amurense

Myrica pensylvanica Myrica cerifera pumila

Betula maximowicziana Maackia amurensis

Parabenzoin praecox Litsea glauca

Distylium racemosum nana Cephalotaxus harringtonia Ogon

Sarcandra glabra Houtuynia cordata variegata

Neolitsea servica Maesa japonica

Schizofragma hydrangeoides Hypericum kalmianum

Prunus Hally Jolivette Kalmia latifolia banded

Forsythia Sunrise Calcycanthus floridus

Quercus glauca Aphanathe aspera

Damnacanthus indicus Skimmia japonica

Acer velutinum Ardisia japonica

Trochodendron arailioides T. arailiodes f. longifolium

Catalpa ovata Cleyera japonica (the true cleyera)

Yucca rupicola Agave virginia

Euonymus japonicus Bekomasaki Viburnum erosum

Cryptomeria japonica spiraliter falcata Pinus bungeana

Chamaecyparis obtusa brevimerea Syringa meyeri

Thuja occidentalis blobosa rhindiana Gordonia axillaris

Thuja occidentalis recurva nana Cephalotaxus sinensis

Chamaecyparis obtusa Sandri Diospyros lotus

Chamaecyparis obtusa Kamaani-Hiba Pinus canariensis

Thuja plicata pygmea Alnus rubra

Chamaecyparis pisifera squarrosa

nana aurea

Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana Sapium sabiferum

Chamaecyparis pisifera Gold Dust Cornus bretschneideri

Thuja occidentalis Hookerina Leitneria floridana

Chamaecyparis obtusa pyramidalis Pinus tabulaeformis

Chamaecparis obtus contorta Pterostyrax corymbosa

Chamaeyparis obtusa monstrosa Pterocarya caucasica

Alnus hirsuta var. Siberica Deutzia crenata

Acer kawakamii var. kawakamii Clethra barbinervis

Thuja standishii Weigelia floribunda

Syringa reticulata var. mandschurica Berberis nummlaria

Stauntonia hexaphylla Syringa pekinensis

Pinus pinaster Syringa oblata

Alnus inokumai Picea gemmata

Chamaecyparis pisifera plumosa Rogersii Weigela coraeensis

Stransvalsia nitakayamensis Tsuga caroliniana

Stewartia malacodendron Crataegus marshalli

Pinus korieana Rhododendron fastigatum

Idesia polycarpa Euonymus phellomanus

Cotinus Nordine Red Populus deltoides Sioux

Philadelphus cornarius aurea Syringa Palibiana dwarf

Syringa James McFarlane "Canadian Cemetery Lilac"

Persian Lilac Dwarf Koreal Lilac

Daphne cneorum pygmea alba Kalmiopsis leacheana

Boykinia jamesi Yucca auustissima

Andromeda polifolia prostrata Andromeda prolifolia alba

Pernettya paraquayensis Genista delphinensis

Gentiana acaulis Spirea lemoniei alpestris

Fotergilla monticola Hypericum empetriformis prostrata

Hypericum kelleri Hypericum polyphyllum

Daphne X burkwoodi Daphne burkwoodi Somerset

Daphne arbuscula Gardenia radicans

Choisya ternata Thuja thyoides ericoides

X Fatshedera lizei vaiegata Hedera helix 'Fleur d'Le'

Ruscus aculeatus Ruseus hypoglossum

Lagerstroemia - Natchez, muskogee Paeonia Houki

Lauris nobilis Photinia davidsoniae

Callistemon sieberi Cercis reniformis

Wisteria frutescens alba Fothergilla gardeni

Pieris phillyreifolium Kalmia hirsuta

Callicarpa pilosiosima Stachyurus himalaicus

Zenobia pulvurenlenta - blue foliaged Cyrilla parviflora

Pterocarya stenoptera Magnolia salicifolia

Galsemium rankinii Clbmatis crispa

Passiflora incarnata alba Meliosma parviflora

Perennials

Ceratostigma willmottianium Penstemon smalli

Centaurea dealbata Steenbergii Ligularia stenocephala

Dicentra spectabilis Dicentra Adrian Bloom

VAriegated Solomon's Seal Panax quinquifolium

Sanguianaria canadensis-Single & Double Trillium grandiflorum

Helleborus corsius Helleborus foetidus

Aubtetia - lavendar, purple, red Bletilla hyacinthiana

Ajuga - Brightness, metallica

crispa purpurea Viola Big Red

Heuchera Rosamundi Genista tinctoria minor

ANemone japonica - Whirlwind,

Queen Charlotte Anemone vitifolia

Iberis Snowflake, Little Gem,

October Glory Allium pulchellum

Convallaria majalis rosea Lycopodium

Rudbeckia Goldquelle Phlox paniculata Norah Leigh

Leontopodium (Edelweiss) Platycodon Shell Pink

Potentilla - nevadensis, Miss Willmont,

Villosa

Drada repens Dianthu caesius Tiny Rubies

Veronica Heavenly Blue Saarum anadense

Hydrophyllum virginianum Caulophyllus thalictroides

Sedum ternatum Dentaria diphylla

Goodyera perbescens Mitella diphylla

Epiges repens Chimaphila maculata

Hepatica acutiloba Mitchella repens

Hosta Nakiana Hosta Sashu Jima Giboshi

Begonia evansiana Gerbera hybrida

28 Caladium cultivars 14 Lily hybrids (600 bulbs)

Alstroemeria pulchella Aspidistra elatior variegata

Ligularia tussilaginea argentea Ligularia tussilaginea aureo-maculata

The list totals roughly 500 new accessions of species or cultivars added to the arboretum collections from January through May 1982

Announcements of Coming Events

Summer Slide Show. On Wednesday night June 30 at 8:00 I will present a slide show that ill be giving at the annual meeting of the American Association of Botanic Gardens and Arboreta about the time you receive this. The topic will be Creating Special Habitats for Special Plants - a look at how gardens all over the world, both private and public, have created specialty environments to grow a wider range of plants. Every gardener and professional can gain new ideas from this talk - how can you grow palms, alpines, heathers, desert plants, Mediterranean plants, woodland and swamp species, etc. in this area. The talk will be held in Room 159 Kilgore Hall.

Summer Garden "Event". On Thursday evening July 29 we will have a multi-event evening at the arboretum. Bring a blanket and picnic basket of food for a picnic 6:30-7:30; bring extra plants, cuttings, and divisions from your garden to trade for new plants with other people at a swap meet table; bring unusual material you'd like for other to see - cut stems in bottles, potted plants, etc. and we'll have a display table set up to look at these personal "goodies"; we'll walk, look and talk about arboretum plants and new developments; and we will have a plant distribution for Friends of the Arboretum of materials we're propagating this summer.

"The Magnificent mammoth Perennials Plantout". A major project of the fall will be planting of a perennials display border. We have a site (south of the annuals area) 25/ x 250/ which will require about 3,000 plants - which if bought, would be more than our total annual working budget. We are growing many things from seed but need many things that are only vegetabively propagated and we're asking for help in this area. If you would pot up perhaps a division or two of some of your perennials as you move or divide plants this summer we may be able to use them in the fall. With the fall newsletter I will mail a form on which you can list plants you have available and return it to me. The total list of plants available will be given to our planting design class to use in designing the border. A map will be made showing where everything goes in the bed. We will reply to you as to what we can use and ask that they be left at the farm or brought on the weekend of "The Magnificent Mammoth Perenials Plantout" in November at which we will invite everyone to participate in planting and becoming a part of this huge undertaking. No part of the garden has seemed to generate as much interest in people I've talked to as the perennial border and we are excited about this way to get everyone involved. Get some plants started, look for the signup sheets in September - a look out Gertrude Jekyll!

Next Newsletter - September with more information and announcements. Just because summer heat strikes don't forget to visit the arboretum - bedding plants are at their peak and a wide variety of plants bloom and fruit through the summer. An evening visit from 6-9 PM hits cooler temperatures and is a delightful time to wander and look. Visit often and have a grand summer.

More Quotes

"Plant lore has to be acquired and stored in the memory. It cannot be acquired in just a few years and the student has to be dedicated throughout his life."

"My philosophy in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute". For Obituary notice of Ayn Rand - died 3/6/82.FRIENDS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY ARBORETUM

MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION (as of 1982)

The North Carolina State University Arboretum was conceived by faculty in the Department of Horticultural Science in 1976 to fulfill many teaching and research needs. A year was spent on development of a master plant by Mr. Fielding Scarborough to identify and locate all the desired features of the future arboretum. Development and planting of an 8-acre site began in 1977 and by 1982 over 4 acres were laid out and planted with over 2,000 species and cultivars of woody and herbaceous ornamental plant species. At least 5 more years will be required to develop the remaining 4 acres and plant another 2,000 species, and to complete specialized gardens and facilities.

OBJECTIVES OF THE ARBORETUM -

A. The assembly and maintenance of taxonomically documented permanent collections of ornamental woody and herbaceous plants of landscape interest. The primary goal of the collection is to display a wide range of exotic species and superior cultivars of landscape plants. Although selected native species will be displayed, excellent collections are already on display at the UNC Botanic Garden 40 miles away and those will not be duplicated here.

B. Service as an outdoor instructional laboratory for faculty and students of various plant-oriented disciplines and for use by the public as a learning center for landscape plant identification and usage.

C. To provide a facility for testing and evaluation of new species and cultivars of landscape plants for North Carolina use with propagation and distribution of successful introductions to other public institutions and members of the nursery and landscape industries.

PURPOSE -

The purpose of the Friends of the North Carolina State University is to encourage and support North Carolina State University in establishing a significant arboretum of high quality at the University that will enhance the teaching and research programs in Horticultural Science, and which will serve the public and the nursery and landscape industries as a place of continuous learning and inspiration. The income from membership fees and donations shall be used for construction of new facilities, purchase of plant materials, and for maintenance of the plantings of the North Carolina State University Arboretum.

Any person interested in the aims and activities of the North Carolina State University Arboretum shall be eligible for membership in the Friends upon payment of dues. Organizations such as garden clubs, plant societies, school groups, and others of similar nature may become members upon payment of appropriate dues and will receive one copy f the Newsletter and all mailings. Members will be kept informed of the activities of the Friends by newsletters.

MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS -

Newsletter - Published quarterly with information on plant materials, new acquisitions, plant evaluations in the Arboretum, new books and sources of rare plants.

Plant Distribution - Annual distribution of plants propagated from the ARboretum collections of unusual and rare materials not available in the nursery trade.

Evening Programs - Twice a year slide show and lecture on topics relating to landscape plants and arboretums and botanic gardens of the world.

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MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION (as of 1982)

Name

Address

City State Zip

Telephone ( )

Enclosed find check for: Annual Memberships:

Student - $10 Sustaining - $50

Individual - $15 Corporate - $100

Family - $20 Patron - $150

Subscription

(Clubs, Libraries) - $20 Life - $200

Checks payable to: N.C. Agricultural Foundation

For: Friends of the North Carolina State University Arboretum

Mail to: North Carolina State University Arboretum

Department of Horticultural Science - NCSU

Box 5216, Raleigh, NC 27650

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