Friends of the Arboretum Newsletter
J. C. Raulston
Notes from the
As this last note gets typed and this
issue and the Update head to the printers for processing - the arboretum staff
is in full frantic frenzy working to get ready for our biggest "event" of the
decade - the Southern Plant Conference. By the time you read it - the meetings
with their outstanding array of guest speakers will be history and we hope all
will have gone well and the "just spit-polished" arboretum will have
been enjoyed by hundreds of visitors from across the country. It has been the
usual up and
down of weather during the year - with a mild winter and good spring flowering
season (a highlight the first flowering of our 10' Manglietia yunnanensis -
a magnolia family member with evergreen foliage and 4" showy white flowers
with bright red stamens at the base - definitely worth the 7 year wait
of juvenility and very exciting), wet cool early summer which "spoiled" the
plants with soft lush growth which then stressed out as we went into a very
hot and dry mid-summer period.
August was really rough - more
than the normal number of plants died from the heat and drought - and particularly
in the conifer section. But one removes such and goes on - few visitors realize
the losses if not directly visible. Another hidden stress occurred when our
container nursery irrigation system failed (on a Saturday morning of the
hottest day of the summer - of course - not discovered until the weekend was
over) and fried many of our new accessions (thankfully few actually killed -
but a brown haze looking over the array of containers at first look). Fall has
brought good rains and cool temperatures - as usual the best part of the year
in N.C. - and we can now look at the garden and feel we'll perhaps survive another
year. But we look at what England and the U.S. Northeast has gone through this
year with incredible heat stress and drought damage - millions of plants damaged
or killed - and realize we have little to seriously complain about.
An exciting year - all the Arboretum
staff pushed to the limits with the normal bewildering array of projects -
Catherine snagged a difficult and most prestigous Institute of Museum Services
provide 20% of our operating budget for the next two years, Tom (and Will Hooker)
finished his/their "Paradise Garden" as well as a thousand other projects and
we are delighted to have recently moved him to more permanent status within
the university administrative system, Newell has developed new office space
at the arboretum with more storage and a "clean computer and office work" room,
and I continue to dash around running my mouth all over the country and wondering
how this complex machine keeps running so well - something like the scientists
who prove that bumblebees can't fly aerodynamically - and they keep buzzing
along. Of course new plants roll in unceasingly - over 700 for the year at
point - with so many exciting new things from friends, institutions and growers
all over the world.
In my "real life" as a university teacher
- have the largest classes of nursery production students since arriving at
NCSU 20 years ago - 100 enquiring minds wanting to know (well - most
of them) and keeping me thoroughly engaged. A busy winter ahead, lots of good
Friends programs with outstanding speakers coming here, the Winter Garden at
the Arboretum should really hit its stride this third year year (sleep, creep,
leap), and so it goes. We wish you well, hope your gardens are thriving, appreciate
your support, and look forward to serving you. I'm excited to have this issue
as the third newsletter out in the last 12 months - maybe we are approaching
a regular schedule - horrors! My reputation ruined.
DISTRIBUTED TO NURSERYMEN - 1994 NCAN SUMMER SHORT COURSE
NCAN Short Course and Trade Fair - Asheville,
NC - August 27-28, 1994.
(Most members who comprise the Friends
of The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) are not in the professional
nursery/landscape trade, but are serious gardeners or people who want to support
the contunation of the arboretum as a state resource. Beyond the arboretum
as a university teaching resource and display garden for the public, there
is also the very important outreach to the commercial industry. Each year plants
are taken to the North Carolina Association of Nurserymen's meeting for display,
and thousands of plants are also propagated for free distribution as an incentive
to try to encourage nurserymen to grow some new crops. To allow our "Friends" to
have a feel for this outreach, I am again as for many years, including here
the information on plants distributed at the 1994 meeting as these may be plants
which will appear in garden centers for the public in the future - and of course
many of the extras from this distribution end up in the autumn members plant
giveaway so many of these are now in your gardens under trial.)
Each year a selection of plants from
The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) is made for propagation and
distribution to N. C. nurserymen at the summer short course as a means of spreading
new or uncomon plants through the state for further observation and perhaps
commercial production. This program has been underway since 1980 and ca.
65,000 plants of 320 different species and cultivars have been given to growers
since its inception. Selection of plants is based on plant ability to be propagated
when the Department of Horticultural Science propagation benches are empty,
size of stock plants in the arboretum adequate to allow taking of 200-300 cuttings,
and absence in the existing commercial industry. Plants will vary in commercial
potential with some having great potential - others merely curiosities for adaptation
study or hobbyist collector-type items.
The plants provided for growers represent
just a sample of the 5,0000 species and cultivars presently growing in The NCSU
Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum). Commercial growers are most welcome
at any time to come to the arboretum to collect propagation material to provide
stock plants for their operations. We do request for nurserymen collecting plants
from the arboretum for the first time, an appointment be made (call 919-515-1192
for J. C. Raulston, 515-5361 for Tom Foley, or 515-1632 for Newell Hancock)
to coordinate which materials may be collected and our general guidelines for
collection procedures. Dozens of growers now gather many hundreds of thousands
of cuttings annually in this manner.
We very much appreciate the long, diligent
efforts of a whole team of Friends of The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston
Arboretum) Volunteers who spent a full week individually labeling, wrapping,
and bagging the 6,000 plants in this year's distribution. Many, many thanks
to all who have helped in this process, and especially to Rosanna Adams, Mary
Edith Alexander, Bill Atkinson, Anna Berry, Tracey Brandt, Wayne Brooke, Harvey
Bumgardner, Tom Bumgarner, Leah Bunker, Dan Burleson, Jo Ann Chiavrini, Linda
Christiansen, Ann Clapp, Brian Cronin, Sarah Dickie, Alice Figgens, Vivian Finklestein,
Lynn Holt, Susan Lambiris, Amelia Lane, Kitty Maynard, Prep Maynard, David Messer,
Bob Olsen, Catherine Parker, Charlotte Presley, Lisa Stroud, Bee Weddington,
G. Welton, and Bob Wilder for your incredible help.
- 9401 Amsonia hubrectii - "Treadleaf Bluestar" (Apocynaceae). An outstanding herbaceous perennial
native to the central U. S. and just now coming into commercial useage in
the perennials market. The "Blue Stars" include some 25 species
native to the U. S. and Japan - and are most commonly represented in commercial
today by A. tabernaemontana from the eastern U.S. All have small blue
star-shaped flowers in early summer on 2-3' plants.
This species differs by
treadlike foliage which is beautiful through the summer following flowering
- and it turns a brilliant ginkgo-yellow in the autumn for over a month
of spectacular color display. In a recent, widely reprinted article I discussed
this plant as perhaps the finest of all perennial plants with excellent
stress tolerance and long season of beauty in the garden. It is easily
propagated by seed (directly sown with no stratification), by softwood cuttings
summer (98+ rooting in several weeks), or by division of established clumps.
In commercial production - cuttings will likely be used. Best in full sun
but will tolerate light shade. USDA Zones 5-9. Excellent commercial potential.
(Found at a variety of sites in the arboretum; front south side of lathhouse,
the desert border, the early late border).
- 9402 Camellia X 'Carolina
Moonmist' - "Carolina Moonmist Camellia" (Theaceae). A newly
named cultivar of hardier camellia originating at The NCSU Arboretum (now
the JC Raulston
Arboretum) as a selection from a population of plants which were originally
developed by Dr. Fred Cochran, former Horticultural Science Department head
and plant breeder at NCSU. In the 60's he was among the first in the U.S.
to hybridize the widely used C. sasanqua Thunb. with the most hardy
of all camellia species, C. oleifera Abel., to combine cold hardiness
of the latter with the larger and more colorful flowers of the former. Blocks
of these hybrid seedlings existed at the Horticultural research farm when
the arboretum was begun in 1977 - and the plants were saved and moved to
around the parking lot to act as hedges and visual screens.
A renowned horticulturist,
Mr. Charles Cresson of the Delaware Valley area, took cuttings of all these
years ago and has been evaluating them for cold hardiness and plant quality
at his garden in USDA Zone 6. This seedling has been among the best in his
trials and we are releasing it for further trial. It has a large rosy, pink
flower in November and has been through -7F in 1985 without injury at The
NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum). Easy from semi-hardwood
to hardwood cuttings throughout the year. Sun or partial shade. USDA Zones
6-9. (Found at the northeast corner of parking lot next to the tall remaining
- 9403 Celtis sinensis Pers.
'Pendula' - "Weeping Chinese Hackberry" (Ulmaceae). A deciduous tree native
to eastern China, Korea and Japan which was introduced to western cultivation
in 1910. The species is quite handsome with glossy foliage which is not affected
by the leaf gall insects which are so troublesome on the American species
- and typical of hackberries - they are very drought stress tolerant. During
a plant exploration trip to China, Dr. Clifford Parks of the University of
North Carolina Botany Department discovered an ancient "National Treasure
Tree" of this species which was heavily pendulous. He was allowed
to bring seed of this tree back to the U.S. and one of the seedlings maintained
this weeping character - and subsequently was found very easy to propagate
by softwood cuttings (rare for hackberries).
He originally introduced it to
commercial culture in catalog listings of Camellia Forest Nursery, 125 Carolina
Rd. PO Box 291, Chapel, Hill 27516 (919-967-5529) about 1989. It is so
strongly weeping that it should be staked and trained up a pole or trellis
the height desired is reached. A have seen a magnificent 12' tree with
flowing branches produced in 2 years in a garden near Houston, TX. A highly
plant with good potential for use by discerning gardeners with creative
imagination in plant design uses. Amazingly easy and fast from softwood
cuttings under mist in early summer. Best in sun. USDA Zones 6-9. (Located
in the northwest section of the west arboretum - between the crepe myrtles
and redbuds there).
- 9404 Cercis yunnanensis
'Celestial Plum' - "Celestial Plum Chinese Redbud" (Leguminosae). The
NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) has the largest collection
in existance of redbud species and cultivars. In recent years much attention
has focused each spring on the showy flowering of a seedling plant of C. yunnanensis
- a species from Yunnan Province, China which is very similar to the "common" Chinese
redbud, C. chinensis (some authorities consider them to be
one species). Since the commercially produced and similar C. chinensis
'Avondale' is produced from softwood cuttings - it was felt worth trying to
propagate this superior form in this manner for distribution trials. Our cuttings
were taken in June and rooted well in high percentages (95%+). It makes a
small, multi-trunk tree to 15' with stems covered with masses of purple-lavender
flowers in early spring. Best in sun. USDA Zones 6-9. (Located in the redbuds
section in the west arboretum - northwest of the Leyland cypress circle).
- 9405 Chrysanthemum weyrichii
(or now possibly Dendranthema weyrichii if you follow the new
major taxonomic shakeup which replaced the entire Chrysanthemum genus
with a dozen others)(Compositae). A herbaceous perennial native to Sakhalin
Island near Japan where it grows on rocky seashores. A low mat-former groundcover
to 2-4" in height with handsome bluish-green evergreen foliage and 1.5" diameter
showy pink flowers in early summer. Excellent potential for commercial production
as a new flowering groundcover - and also for beach use in seacoast areas
where the salt tolerance will be invaluable. Propagated by underground runners
which can be divided into segments. Runners form more rapidly in loose, well-drained
mixes so production of stock beds in raised beds or flats of loose nursery
mix will be most efficent. Sun or partial shade. USDA Zones 5-9. (Located
to the left of the entrance to the lath house).
- 9406A Cryptomeria japonica
D. Don 'Gracilis' - "Graceful Japanese Cedar" (Taxodiaceae). The "Japanese
Cedars" represent one of best collections in The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC
Raulston Arboretum) with perhaps the largest collection of cultivars in the
U.S. today. Various taxa of this handsome conifer have been distributed and
promoted through this NCAN distribution in the past - and a comprehensive
review of the group was published recently (Dr. Kim E. Tripp - "Sugi
- The ancient Japanese cedar finds new life in a profusion of outstanding
cultivar forms." American Nurseryman 178(7):26-39. Oct. 1, 1993).
describes this cultivar as follows: "This is my current love
affair - one of the most elegantly beautiful of the old European cultivars,
with spring green foliage appearing braided
around slender, erect branches arranged in a formally pyramidal habit.
This cultivar eventually reaches 20 to 30 feet in height but is somewhat
than fast-growing cultivars like 'Yoshino' which are usually used for screening.
'Gracilis' makes a striking specimen or fascinating massed planting. It
has the potential to create an entirely new approach to screening hedges
with an open, graceful effect that does not creat a solid wall of privacy
and does not turn small properties into dark, coniferous caves. Also, it
will not infringe on power lines in a single season."
It was first described by Krussman
in 1972. As with all Cryptomerias - rooting is best on cuttings with mature
wood at the base - and with the proper cutting selection percentages are
in the 90%+ levels and can be good at most times of the year. (See: Jull,
Laura et al in "Effects of growth stage, branch position and IBA concentration
on rooting stem cuttings of 'Yoshino' cryptomeria." Proc. SNA Research
Workers Conference 38:30-32. 1993). Sun or partial shade. USDA Zones 6-9.
in the Cryptomeria collection section of the conifers in the northeast
section of the arboretum).
- 9406B Cryptomeria japonica
D. Don 'Yellow Twig' - "Yellow Twig Japanese Cedar" (Taxodiaceae). See
generic background information on the Japanese cedars in the description above.
Kim describes this cultivar in the American Nurseryman article as follows:
"A medium-slow growing form with upright rounded habit and slightly pendulous
branchlets. The twigs under the foliage are yellowish, giving the whole plant
a sprightly golden cast. Excellent, quality growth with no dieback in a lovely,
uniform beehive mound 5 to 6 feet tall. This cultivar may be the mid-size
compact Cryptomeria of choice for the average grower. An excellent alternative
foundation plant with a horticultural spark." It is not described in the new
Welch "World Checklist of Conifers" and is essentially not available
at present in U.S. commercial channels. Sun or partial shade. USDA Zones
- located in the Cryptomeria collection section of the conifers in
the northeast section of the arboretum).
- 9407 Dasylirion sp.
(3 Mexico collections) - "Desert Spoon, Bear Grass, Sotol" (Agavaceae,
also listed in Liliaceae). About 18 species exist in this genus of Yucca-like
from Texas and Mexico. They have essentially never been grown commercially
in the eastern U. S. (and very little even where they are native) and as
result, very little is known of their total adaptability with some references
listing them as USDA Zone 8-10 plants based on their southern desert native
habitats. However, we have had many of them in The NCSU Arboretum (now the
JC Raulston Arboretum) for over a decade and some are spectacularly beautiful
plants. We distributed two species for trial in 1989.
Mr. John Fairey and
Mr. Carl Schoenfeld of Yucca Do Nursery, FM 359, PO Box 655, Waller, TX 77484
have been active in exploring for new plant species in Mexico over the
6 years with over 60 expeditions for this purpose. They have recently shared
new seed with the arboretum for trial - and plants from this seed make
this item. We are distributing this plant without a species name as taxonomy
of the various species in this genus is difficult at best, and at time
seed collection (with flowers long gone) it is impossible to absolutely
verify the exact species - and, in addition, new ones are continually being
discovered. If hardy in your area, the plants should eventually reach 3-5" in
diameter with flower stalks that can be 3-15' in height on various species.
Propagation is by seed, or division of the occasional offsets. Grown in
sun with good drainage - and it could be used as a houseplant in colder
regions. USDA Zones 7-9. (Located in the desert border at the southwest
corner of the arboretum).
- 9408 Dionaea muscipula Ellis. - "Venus Fly Trap" (Dionacaceae).
Probably the most famous of all N.C. native plants with great fascination
to all - from children to physiological scientists
- with the unique movement of the leaves which can close when hairs on their
surfaces are triggered - and in nature trapping insects in that process.
is native only to a small region around the Wilmington, N.C. area in swampy
regions. The plants have long been collected from the wild, but the huge
demands on a worldwide basis have caused serious concerns of endangering
the species and the wild populations - and new laws now regulate wild collection
and sale. Thankfully - commercial propagation with tissue culture, division
of plants and leaf blade cuttings have made the need for wild collection
Firms now exist which grow these plants by the hundreds of thousands for
mass market chain store sales worldwide. The plants being distributed came
arboretum as a gift of a nurseryman who purchased more tissue cultured plants
than he needed. They grow best in full sun in a moist, acid medium - a 50:50
peat:sand mix works well. Excellent garden plant in bog areas - and excellent
commercial potential for production and sale. USDA Zones 6-9. (Not currently
on display - go to the UNC Botanical Garden in Chapel Hill and see their
carnivorus plant display instead - also an incredible display at the Atlanta
- 9409 Euonymus alata (Thunb.)
Sieb. 'Monstrosus' - "Heavy-Winged Euonymus" (Celastraceae). A deciduous
shrub native to China and Japan which is noted for its brilliant red fall
color, and in varying degrees - for the winged bark which is attractive in
winter. It was introduced to western culture in 1860 and the species received
an Award of Garden Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1984. Several
cultivars have been selected with 'Compactus', a slower growing and smaller
U.S. cultivar introduced in 1928, making up most commercial production in
this country today. This cultivar is more normal in sizeto the species with
rapid growth to 6-9' and corky winged bark which is much larger and showier
than other forms for more winter interest. In addition to landscape use, this
cultivar has great potential for the florist cut branches market. Easily propagated
from softwood cuttings in early summer. Best in sun - particularly to get
full fall coloration on foliage. USDA Zones 4-9. (Located in the "Winter
Garden" in the east arboretum - at the south side of the beautiful multitrunked Quercus phillyreoides tree with the wooden bench).
- 9410 Fatshedera X media
Guillaum 'Annemieke' (also listed as 'Anna Mikkels', 'Lemon and Lime',
'Maculata' and 'Aureovariegata') - "Golden-Variegated Fatshedera" (Araliaceae).
A man-made bigeneric hybrid of Hedera hibernica and Fatsia japonica which
occured in France in 1910. The plant is an excellent ornamental with attractive
foliage intermediate in size between the two parents and great
shade and stress tolerance. Several variegation mutations have been selected
- with this one being characterized by leaves variegated yellow in the center
of the leaves. Very easy and fast from cuttings at any time of year - and
can be cut down to single-node cuttings for maximum build-up potential. Can
take full sun to heavy shade. Has been used for understock for production
of "Tree ivies" with cleft grafts of Hedera on top of a staked understock
of Fatshedera. USDA Zones 7-9.
- 9411 Fokienia hodginsii Henry & Thomas - "Fokienia" (Cupressaceae).
A rare conifer as the sole member of this genus native to China - discovered
by Captain Hodgins
in 1908 and introduced to western cultivation in 1909. It is most closely
allied to the genus Thujopsis in appearance with flattened sprays of
foliage. Little is known of total adaptability with most European literature
rating it a relatively tender species for USDA Zones 8 or 9. Our observations
over recent years indicate with the additional heat of the southeast, hardiness
is dependable in USDA Zones 7, and probably worthy of trial in 6. Unique fernlike
appearance of the branches and of ornamental merit. Very easy from semi-hardwood
to hardwood cuttings. Will grow in sun or shade. USDA Zones 7-9. (Located
in the lathhouse).
- 9412 Gelsemium sempervirens
(L.) J. St. Hill. 'Woodlander's Pale Yellow' - "Woodlander's Pale Yellow
Carolina Jessamine" (Loganiaceae). A wonderful evergreen vine native
to the southeastern U.S. which is widely grown in commercial culture for
yellow, fragrant flowers in early spring. In nature it is an extremely stable
species with only one variant now in common production - the double-flowered
G. sempervirens 'Pride of Augusta'. A few years ago Woodlander's Nursery,
1128 Colleton Ave., Aiken, S.C. 29801 (8030-648-7522) first introduced the
now-widely grown G. rankanii which flowers in both fall and spring
(but has no fragrance). More recently, they have discovered and introduced
this clone which is the first flower color variant noted - with pale primrose-yellow
flowers instead of the brilliant chrome yellow of the species. It has been
greatly admired by the public and designers when in flower in The NCSU Arboretum
(now the JC Raulston Arboretum). Like the species - it is very easy and fast
from cuttings at almost any time of year. Needs much greater use - excellent
commercial potential. USDA Zones 7-9. (Located on the vine trellis at the "Volunteer's Terrace" beside
the arboretum work office).
- 9413 Heptacodium miconioides
Airy-Shaw - "Seven-Son Flower; Autumn Lilac" (Oleaceae). A
rare and beautiful deciduous shrub/small tree in an entirely new genera in
cultivation from China.
It was first discovered in China by E. H. Wilson, but was not brought into
western cultivation until 1980. It was originally distributed as H. jasminoides and
is still listed that way in many catalogs and references. It produces fragrant
white flowers in terminal clusters in August-September, which are
followed by showy purplish bracts through the fall (whence the name "Autumn
Lilac"). In winter the peeling whitish bark is extremely attractive.
The broad curling leaves are glossy and attractive in summer.
from semi-hardwood cuttings in summer is relatively easy (see: Bilderback's
paper in Nursery Notes
24(1):31 - Jan/Feb '91) and plants can grow 2-4' per year when young. Young
from cuttings tend to grow laterally and sprawl. Staking these branches
will not develop upright growth. Plants will develop normally upright tree
growth when planted in field conditions to allow roots to grow sufficiently
to force the upright growth. With time, plants can be limbed up to
multi-trunk small trees which will probably reach 15-20' with age. Highly
ornamental and worthy of commercial production and use. Best in sun. Very
drought tolerant. USDA Zones 5-9. (Located in the southeast section of the
arboretum in the "magnolia/barberry peninsula").
- 9413A Ilex vomitoria Ait.
'Will Fleming' - "Will Fleming Fastigate Yaupon Holly" (Aquifoliaceae).
The yaupon holly is an broadleaved evergreen tree native to the southeastern
U.S. from Virginia to Texas with many selected cultivars grown as ornamental
crops. It is an extremely stress tolerant species growing successfully in
a wide variety of habitats with great drought and salt tolerance. The most
commonly used commercial forms are the compact "green meatballs" -
but other growth forms exist such as the weeping I. vomitoria 'Pendula'. This
cultivar is very narrowly and tightly fastigate - I have seen plants 14' tall
and less than 1' in diameter! It was first widely produced commercially in
the Houston, TX area and is now moving throughout the southeast - and not
yet common in N.C. Relatively easy from semi-hardwood to hardwood cuttings.
With the tight growth form - in northern areas of its useage range - it is
probably wise each fall to spiral wrap the plant in green twine for the winter
to prevent snow load breakage and branch splaying. Best in sun but tolerates
shade. USDA Zones 6-9. (Located on either side of the arbor entrance into
the arboretum from the parking lot).
- 9413B Ilex X 'Red Robe' - "Red Robe Hybrid Holly" (Aquifoliaceae). A
broadleaf evergreen shrub from a cross of I. cornuta 'Burfordii' X I. pernyi with
the resulting characteristic small, dark green toothed foliage associated
most pernyi hybrids. A female plant with red fruit. Easy from semi-hardwood
to hardwood cuttings at most any time of year. A dense, dark plant which
be a specimen or sheared and used for smaller barrier protection hedges.
Sun or shade. USDA Zones 5-9. (Located in the west arboretum in the bed east
the "building footprint" - under the large wingnut tree).
- 9414 Itea virginiana L.
'Saturnalia' - "Saturnalia Virginia Sweetspire" (Grossulariaceae).
An excellent ornamental deciduous white-flowering shrub from the southeastern
U.S. - native from New Jersey to Louisana. It reaches 3-4' in height and
grown for its showy white flower racemes in early summer, and for fall color
- garnet red in the popular cultivar 'Henry's Garnet'. 'Saturnalia' was introduced
in 1993 by Larry Lowman of Ridgecrest Nursery, Rt. 3, Box 241, Wynne, AR
(501-238-3763) as a selection from a population of plants grown from seed
collected along the Wolfe River in Fayette County, TN. (See American Nurseryman
- Dec. 15, 1993; p. 108.)
This selection was made for its particularly
brilliant fall foliage display of intense red, orange, hot pink and yellow
foliage - and was named for the wildly exuberant autumn celebrations of
ancient Rome. Extremely easy to propagate from leafy cuttings all summer
(even down to single nodes) and very fast growing. Tolerates wet and dry
sites - and sun and light shade but fall color will be most intense in
full sun. Excellent commercial potential. USDA Zones 5-9. (Located in the
corner of the arboretum).
- 9415 Juniperus chinensis
L. 'Oblonga' - "Oblong Chinese Juniper" (Cupressaceae). A conifer
shrub which has mixed juvenile and dark green adult foliage - similar to J. chinensis
'Japonica' but lower and more widely spreading. It originated at the Bobbink
and Atkins Nursery, Rutherford, N.J. in 1932. The arboretum plant had reach
a large size (10') and needed to come out for space conservation and new plantings
- and we stuck available cuttings before removing it. Not a particularly distinguished
plant nor necessarily recommended for production - sort of a big green thing
like many other plants in the industry. Roots well from hardwood cuttings
taken in mid-winter. Best in sun. USDA Zones 4-9. (No longer in the collection).
- 9415A Juniperus horizontalis
Moench. 'Variegata' - "Variegated Creeping Juniper" (Cupressaceae). An
excellent groundcover conifer species and one of the most important nursery
crops in the world with millions of plants produced for use in the U.S. from
coast to coast and from Florida to North Dakota. Native to northern North
America from Washington to Maine and throughout Canada. Many selections have
been made for form, color, texture, height, etc. and The NCSU Arboretum (now
the JC Raulston Arboretum) currently has the world reference collection of
ca. 55 cultivars which was assembled by graduate student Larry Hatch for
taxonomic study under the direction of Dr. Paul Fantz.
This cultivar has white
variegated patches of growth thrown out in a relatively stable and consistent
(i.e., seems to not do all white, or all green chimeral sections in a planting)
- which provides a variation from the normal appearance of this plant in
the landscape. Certainly not a "commercial plant" for widespread landscaping
- but of interest again to a variegated plant enthusiast or conifer specialist.
Easily rooted under mist from hardwood cuttings at any time of year on mature
growth. Potential for use in sunny locations in USDA Zones 3-9. (Also
distributed in 1993 as #9319A). (Located in the west arboretum in the aisle
lined with this collection).
- 9415B Juniperus virginiana
L. (NCSU Selection) - "Eastern Red Cedar" (Cupressaceae). A well-known
conifer tree native throughout the eastern U.S. Widely variable in nature
and over 60 cultivars have been named (see: J. C. Raulston, "Eastern Red Cedar
- An appreciation of an overlooked tree." Fine Gardening 89:50-55 Jan/Feb
1989). With easier propagation and less susceptibility to cedar apple rust
- the Chinese species of junipers (particularly J. chinensis cultivars)
completely dominate this market in the eastern U.S. with far too rare production
of our fine native tree.
This selection being distributed
would make a good hedging/screening plant with tight columnar growth and
dark green color. Relatively easy from winter hardwood cuttings under mist
and grows about 2' per year in production. A female plant which produces
the typical blue "berries" of the species. Best in sun and tolerant
of a wide range of soils and drought. USDA Zones 4-9. (Located in the arboretum
field nursery research area - not open to general public).
- 9416 Lagerstroemia fauriei
Koehne 'Townhouse' - "Townhouse Japanese Crepe Myrtle" (Lythraceae). This
"new" species of crepe myrtle was collected on the southern Japanese
island of Yakushima - where it is a rare endemic plant - by a Dr. John Creech-lead
National Arboretum/Longwood Gardens collecting team in the 1950's for its
increased cold hardiness, disease resistant foliage, and beautiful red flaking
bark. Several of the original collection seedlings found their way to NCSU
in the early 60's and now make superb 40-50' tree specimens in the arboretum.
volunteer seedling from these old trees was dug from the west arboretum and
planted in the student designed-and-built
model garden known as the "Townhouse Garden" in 1984. As this
seedling grew it became a very beautiful plant - and was greatly admired
visitors for the extremely dark red bark - the darkest of all the crepe
myrtles in our collection. Public demand for the plant spurred growers
propagate it for sale - and this use lead the arboretum to naming it 'Townhouse'
for market identification. It has white flowers in summer typical of the
species and wonderful dark red bark usually appearing by the third year
of production. Softwood and semi-hardwood cuttings root easily and grow
off rapidly (2-4' per year). Best in sun. Hardiness of L. fauriei
is very much influenced by water and nutrition in the fall and for maximum
hardiness it should be grown with as little water and nutrition as possible
after July. USDA Zones 6-9. (Located in the Townhouse Garden east of the
bedding plant trials).
- 9417 Liatris microcephala
(Small) K. Schumann - "Small-headed Blazing Star; "Dwarf Blazing Star".
(Asteraceae). A very beautiful herbaceous purple-flowered perennial native
to western N. C. (and SC, GA, AL, TN, KY). Reported to reach 3' but seen
the arboretum at 1-1.5' in height with many flowering stems forming a globe
shaped plant of fine and delicate texture. Much less prone to topple and
than other species tried. Best in full sun and very drought stress tolerant.
Very easy from seed gathered when ripe and can be sown without any stratification;
will also go by softwood stem cuttings, and older clumps can be divided.
make an attractive quart plant for sales in one season from greenhouse winter-sown
seed. Has potential for both fresh and dried cut flower markets. USDA Zones
5-9. (Located several places - in front of the lath house as one).
- 9418 Magnolia denudata Desprouss.
'Forrest's Pink' - "Forrest Pink Yulan Magnolia" (Magnoliaceae).
The Yulan magnolia from China has been in cultivation there for over a thousand
as one of the very finest of garden plants (the blossoms often featured in
classic black ink paintings) and it has been in western cultivation since
1789. It makes a small tree to 35' with pure white, wonderfully fragrant
appearing very early in spring (and thus often frost damaged). This rarely
grown, clear pink flowered cultivar was originally selected and introduced
by Treseder's Nurseries, from the original tree at Caerhays Castle, Cornwall,
England, which was grown from seed collected by the noted plant explorer
Forrest (1873-1932 - discovered over 1,200 new species of plants in China).
plant was imported from a noted Swiss grower and has flowered quite beautifully
in the arboretum now for
several years. Often considered difficult to propagate, this year we needed
to trim our plant to a single trunk specimen and as we did so, I had our
crew stick all the cuttings on the prunings - and to my amazement - they
rooted well! - with enough for this distribution. (Admittedly - I worry
- with the easy propagation, is this possibly rootstock from a grafted
plant?? With further experience and thought in '95 - I think likely so -
Probably best sited on a cooler north slope to retard early flowering with
some light tracery of branches overhead as protection for radiational frost
late in the season. Certainly worth having even if seen at peak only once
in five years. USDA Zones 5-9. (Located east of the rose garden).
- 9419 Manfreda virginiana
(L.) Salisbury. - "False Aloe; Rattlesnake Master" (Agavaceae
or Amaryllidaceae). Botanically complex plants of about 20 species with placement
in two different
families and three different genera (also Agave and Polianthes) by various
authors. They could be considered basically herbaceous perennial agaves with
above ground growth dying to the ground each winter with regrowth from fleshy
underground roots and rhizomes.
This species is found from the coast
to the mountains of the Carolinas with most N.C. populations in the Piedmont.
On many plants the foliage can be very handsomely mottled and pattered -
and superior clones could probably be developed. Long willowy flower stalks
2-4' tall with small greenish-white flowers appear in summer. Propagated
easily from seed without stratification or division of colonies. Best in
sun with drainage but surprisingly tolerant of a wide range of conditions.
A Mexican species was distributed in this program in 1989 as #8914. USDA
Zones 6-9. (Located in the desert garden in the southwest corner of the
- 9420 Muhlenbergia dumosa - "Bamboo Muhly" (Graminae).
A stunning ornamental grass I first saw in the gardens at Yucca Do Nursery
in the fall of 1992 while on a Texas lecture tour.
The texture and form were unique and exquisitly beautiful - I felt it was
the most beautiful new ornamental I saw in 1992 and certainly deserving of
trial to see its potential in N.C. It is a clump-forming (no aggressive runners)
grass with coarse bamboo-like stems which emerge from the ground to a height
of 5' and arch out 5-7' wide like a graceful fountain of finely divided,
gossamer-like pale green foliage.
Native to Arizona and grown in California
by " the grassman" John Greenlee (who grows every grass known)
- and has moved into N.C. production by grass specialists since my promotion
in 1993. It is reputed to be a USDA Zone 8 plant - but it survived the
rough winter of '94 in Raleigh coming through (short-term) lows of near
with mulching it should be dependable in USDA Zone 7. It can be propagated
by division of the clumps - but more easily by seed which are available
from Wild Seed, Inc., P. O. Box 27751, Tempe, AZ 85285 (602-345-0669) at
$12/1,000 seed. Best in sun. (Located at the north end of the parking lot
backing the arboretum sign on Beryl Road).
- 9421 Nolina sp. - "Beargrass"
(Agavaceae or Liliaceae). A little-grown genera of 25 species of plants found
mostly in the southwest and Mexico - although the southeastern U.S. has several
species including N. georgiana from N.C. They are somewhat yucca-like plants
with many tending to a more "grassy" look with longer, thinner
and more flexible leaves than most yuccas. Some remain as grassy rosettes,
while others can
make massive woody trunks and reach 25' in height. They produce tall, branches
panicles of whitish-green flowers in summer.
We have a half-dozen species
doing well in the "desert habitat" on the southwest corner of The
NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum). As above in #9407, Dasylirion
sp. - the
plants in this distribution come from seed of new unknown species collected
in Mexico by Yucca Do Nursery - and are being distributed for adaptation
trial. Best in sun and good drainage. All species are easily propagated
by seed without stratification, or by division of multiple-crown clumps.
USDA Zones 7-9.
- 9422 Osmanthus heterophyllus
(G. Don) P. S. Green 'Fastigata' - "Columnar Osmanthus" (Oleaceae).
A broadleaved evergeen shrub introduced from Japan by Thomas Lobb in 1856.
species - or more commonly cultivars of this species - are widely grown as
important commercial plants in the southeastern U.S. with varying characteristics.
Their ease in propagation, rapid growth, freedom from pest and physiological
problems result in wide industry and public acceptance.
This tightly fastigate
form was obtained from Head-Lee Nursery, Inc., 2365 Bl. Ridge Blvd., Seneca,
S.C. 29678 (803-882-3663)
as one of many new plant introductions they have recently developed. Our
plant is now nearly 5' in height and less than a foot in diameter - much
like the Ilex vomitoria 'Will Fleming' (#9413A) above. It should
be very useful for smaller screening hedges. Best in sun but will tolerate
light shade. Very easy from semi-hardwood to hardwood cuttings at any time
of year. USDA Zones 6-9. (Located to the north of the entrance arbor beside
the tile planter with the weeping Norway spruce).
- 9423 Parthenocissus henryana (Hemsl.) Diels & Gilg - "Henry's Creeper" (Vitaceae).
A highly ornamental deciduous vine from China which was first discovered
by Austine Henry in 1885
and introduced to western cultivation by Ernest Wilson in 1900. It was awarded
the Award of Merit in 1906 and the Award of Garden Merit in 1984 by the Royal
Horticultural Society. It differs from the more commonly seen Virginia Creeper
by the purple-bronze coloration of the compound foliage - particularly on
the underside of leaves - and the whitish mid-vein coloration. Very handsome
foliage with good fall color and purple fruit clusters. Very easy from softwood
cuttings. Useful in either full sun or partial shade. It climbs by aerial
attachments and can be used on wood or stone walls or support without need
for twining around a wire. USDA Zones 6-9. (Located inside the visitor center
pavilion on the north wall).
- 9424 Photinia villosa (Thunb.)
DC 'Village Shade' - "Village Shade Tree" (Rosaceae). A small deciduous
tree native to China, Korea, and Japan which was introduced by Siebold about
1865. It is noted for bearing white hawthorn-like flowers in May, followed
by small, egg-shaped, bright red fruits in autumn. This cultivar was recently
named from a seedling variant in The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)
noted for its better foliage characteristics - dark green, glossy foliage
throught the summer which turns yellow in fall. It is being introduced and
promoted for the "small shade tree under powerlines market" with
a likely height of 15-20'.
Easy from softwood and semi-hardwood
cuttings in early summer and growing 2-3' per year when young. Best in
sun but will take light shade. Very stress tolerant. One market concern
name "Photinia" which now has a negative connotation in many
markets - and we have considered releasing it under the name the Chinese
- Pourthiaea villosa - which would not come with this potential market
problem. Outstanding ornamental plant. USDA Zones 5-9. (Located in the southwest
arboretum south of the Abelia collection).
- 9425 Prunus glandulosa Thunb.
'Plena Alba' - "Double White Flowering Almond; Chinese Bush Cherry" (Rosaceae).
A small, bushy shrub native in China and long cultivated in Japan - the species
introduced in 1835 with this cultivar originating in 1852. It received an
Award of Merit in 1950 and an Award of Garden Merit in 1984 from the Royal
Horticultural Society. A plant growing 3-4' in height and 4-7' in width with
spectacular fully double white flowers completely covering the plant in very
Once widely grown in commercial culture
until recent decades when the broadleaved evergreen mania sidetracked most
deciduous shrubs in southern gardens. New interest in deciduous plants
bringing back many of these fine plants - and this is an exceptionally
fine one worthy of being grown. Also useful for the forced cut branches
market. A pink form from Japan (1774) also exists (which we have in the
arboretum beside the white one). Very easy and fast from summer cuttings
- and few growth problems. USDA Zones 4-9. (Located in the east arboretum
to the east of the "crepe myrtle peninsula").
- 9426 Prunus persica (L.)
Batsch 'Pillar' - "Pillar or Columnar Peach" (Rosaceae). The common peach
species grown for fruit production also has many ornamental cultivars (which
rarely have decent fruit in comparison) that have been in production over
the last century. These include dwarfs, weeping, fastigate, and multi-colored
flower forms. This cultivar was selected for its tightly fastigate form and
pure white flowers which make a spectacular show in early spring. Very easy
from semi-hardtwood cuttings under mist in summer and rapid growing. Generally
considered to be relatively short-lived in the southern landscape (10-20 years)
- but the inexpensive plants are cost effective and useful even so. Best in
sun and with good moisture availability. It does produce fruit which are edible
- but they won't win any prizes at the fair. USDA Zones 5-9. (Located
in the west arboretum as framing elements on the first walkway to the right
after entering that section of the garden).
- 9427 Sarcocca hookeriana
Baill.- "Sweet Box" (Buxaceae). An excellent broadleaved evergreen
groundcover shrub from the Himalayas. Introduced to western cultivation in
1884. Can reach
4' in height though usually seen shorter than that in southern gardens -
and slowly suckering to form wide colonies. Flowers and fruit are essentially
non-ornamental and rarely noticed. Very easily propagated from stem cuttings
- can be dug and divided in the landscape but not really commercially cost
effective to do so. Slower to cover areas than some other groundcover materials
- but an outstanding long-term investment for a quality landscape. Best in
light shade. USDA Zones 6-9. (Located in the east arboretum under a large
American holly west of the square pool).
- 9428 Sinojackia rehderiana
H. H. Hu - "Jack's Tree" (Styraceae). A very rare, Styrax-like
deciduous white-flowering tree from east China discovered and introduced
cultivation in 1930. In The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)
trials it has been an outstanding ornamental with merits of easy propagation
from softwood and semi-hardwood cuttings, rapid growth, glossy stress-tolerant
foliage, showy white flowers in spring, and interesting beaked seeds in fall.
It was distributed in 1989 as #8921, and more recently has been on the NCAN
promotion program for several years.
The primary problem being encountered
by some nurserymen is failure of rooted cuttings to overwinter successfully
in the winter after propagation - a common problem in the Styrax family.
Once past this stage and established in the ground, there seem to be no
major problems. The seed has extremely thick walls and is virtually impossible
to germinate. Suggested as a small tree for use under powerlines with literature
describing it as reaching 14' - but the arboretum tree is already above
this and growing. Best in sun. Outstanding ornamental plant. USDA Zones
5-9. (Located in the west arboretum below the Japanese garden near the tall
- 9429 Tsuga sieboldii Carr. - "Japanese Hemlock" (Pinaceae).
A beautiful conifer tree to 60' from southern Japan introduced to western
culture by Phillip von Siebold about 1855. The
needles are broader than the American species, glossy above with a white
band beneath. Rapid growing and a very handsome species worthy of commercial
Surprisingly easy from hardwood cuttings taken in January - our plants rooted
98%+ with massive root systems by summer. Sun or partial shade. USDA Zones
5-8. (Plants located in the conifer section of the northeast arboretum and
in the lath house).
- 9430 Wisteria floribunda
(Willd.) DC. 'Mon Nishiki' ('Brocade Cloth') - "Variegated Wisteria" (Leguminosae).
A novelty variegated foliage cultivar of the common wisteria which was collected
in Japan and introduced by Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD. It emerges most
showy in the cooler spring temperatures with whitish-yellowish variegation
which can be quite strong and dramatic at times. In the heat of the south
the variegation fades back to solid green by mid-summer; but could perhaps
retain its color in cooler areas such as the Pacific northwest, England, or
northern US areas. The flower color is the normal violet-blue seen on most
wisteria. Probably of interest only to variegated plant crazies with little
commercial use - and distributed mainly for conservation purposes to get it
scattered around the country. Propagation is easy with softwood cuttings under
mist in summer - and the typical widely rampant growth once established. Potential
use in USDA Zones 5-9.
(Note - also distributed in 1993
as #9335). (Two plants located in the wisteria collection in the model
gardens area - north of the rose garden).
CANDIDATES ATTEMPTED AND FAILED FOR
THE 1994 DISTRIBUTION WINDOW
Lest growers think all is rosy in our
propagation efforts and we have none of the problems that each of you face daily
- we've decided to include our failure list for plants we tried to produce for
this distribution. If one figures it up - we've had only about a 60% success
rate over the last two years of this observation!
- Castanopsis cuspidata
- winter hardwood cuttings; rooted well but a section of bed failed - yielding
only 130 of 200.
- Cupressus macrocarpa 'Saligna
Aurea' - winter hardwood cuttings; none rooted (normally grafted in trade).
- Cupressus sempervirens
(hardy Turkey selection) - container plant cuttings - too few for '94; will
be ready for '95. Daphniphyllum macropodum - summer semi-hardwood cuttings;
stuck too late; for '95.
- Enkianthus serrulatus
- summer semi-hardwood cuttings; stuck too late and too few available - but
40 of 90 rooted.
- Hedera colchica 'Dentata
Variegata' - any cuttings off potted plants; all rooted easily but still
small numbers; for '95. Ilex chinensis - winter hardwood cuttings;
only 10 of 200 rooted.
- Ilex crenata Rocky Road'
- winter hardwood cuttings from pot plant; few available - many deteriorated
- Lonicera nitida 'Silver
Beauty' - 200 cuttings - all rooted quickly; pulled for future NCAN promotion.
- Juniperus formosana
- winter hardwood cuttings - 15 of 200 rooted.
- Keteeleria davidiana
- winter hardwood cuttings; surprised 120 of 200 rooted (our first success
with this highly desired species); many single roots with fragile attachment
and had high transplant losses.
- Magnolia virginiana 'San
Jose' - taken too late and then pulled for future NCAN distribution.
- Pittosporum heterophyllum
- winter hardwood cuttings - heavily damaged (frozen) when taken; 10 of 70
rooted. Pittosporum tobira 'Tall & Tough' - late winter hardwood
cuttings with some cold injury - got 90 of 200; for '95.
- Platycladus occidentalis
'Filiformis Erecta' - winter hardwood cuttings; only 35 of 200 rooted
(normally grafted in trade).
- Prunus persica 'White Glory'
- about 60 of 250 rooted; many weak.
- Ulmus alata 'Lace Parasol'
- summer softwood cuttings - about 60 of 250 rooted; some deterioration before
- Zenobia pulverulenta 'Blue
Form' - limited propagation wood available; rooted well; should be numbers
enough for '95.
WINTER HARDINESS EVALUATIONS IN THE NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)
(original version in Proc. SNA Res. Workers
Winter hardiness is commonly perceived
to be one of the most important measures of plant adaptability in evaluating
woody plants for long-term landscape use. So many factors (photoperiod, temperature,
nutrition, watering, etc.) affect the conditioning and hardening of woody plants
to tolerate low temperatures that it is difficult to fully accertain the precise
hardiness a given plant may actually have in landscape use even after extensive
field and laboratory research (8). Data slowly accumulates from field experience
in trials of new species and cultivars in varied landscape environments and
cultural regimes. As more experience and data is obtained over many years of
time, this information is used in technical references and industry guides to
help growers and homeowners better know where and how new plants may be successfully
used (2). Much such information on rare plants is first available in reference
materials from England (1,3,7), Germany (5,6), or the U.S. west coast (4), but
the total environment of the southeastern U.S. is so different that many plants
from the same USDA hardiness zones i n the three areas may have markedly different
tolerance to cold. For example, Gardenia, Lagerstroemia, and Nandina are
winter-killed in areas which never go below 20F in England, yet tolerate conditions
below 10F routinely in Raleigh with no injury thanks to high summer
temperatures here which allow carbohydrate accumulation and hardening of wood. "Local" information
over many years is still needed to know the true winter hardiness of a plant
for any given area.
The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston
Arboretum) focuses on field trials of rare woody plant taxa to determine adaptation
potential and ornamental merit in USDA Zone 7 in the southeast U.S. Piedmont
region. Over 9,000 taxa have been accessioned in the 18 years of the arboretum's
life, and the current collections contain an estimated 5,000 taxa of shrubs
and trees. Many of these plants are new to U.S. cultivation from exotic climates
and many are new hybrids or cultivars which have not been tested for specific
genotype stress tolerance. During the winter of 1993-94, the coldest temperatures
registered in 9 years were experienced with many hundreds of new and/or rare
plants being exposed to temperatures below 10F for the first time.
Results and Discussion: The following
compilation presents information on response of uncommon woody plants to a
low of 2F in a period of several days with temperatures below 10F. Observations
through the arboretum showed the wildly variable patterns commonly seen in
winter periods, with some familiar plants of "known" hardiness which "should
be killed" showing little or no injury (e.g. Mahonia lomarifolia ),
others which "should have no injury" being killed (e.g. Trachycarpus fortunei
, which went through 10 degrees colder weather 10 years ago with no injury),
and others ranging in injury depending on exposure (e.g. Mahonia X intermedia
'Arthur Menzies' ranging from no injury to dead at two sites 100' apart). Wind
and sun exposure markedly affected injury ratings of broadleaved evergreens
and was particularly dramatic at a lath house environment where branches extending
through the lath were killed on the outside and had no injury inches away on
the inside. Thus, all information below should be considered observational,
but in many instances this information is the first to be recorded for these
taxa in this temperature regime and can be used for a starting point of potential
adaptations for the southeast U.S.
Uncommon woody plants which demonstrated
no damage at 2F:
- Abelia chinensis - deciduous
flowering shrub from Asia.
- Bischofia polycarpa - deciduous
shade tree from Asia.
- Callicarpa kwangtungensis -
deciduous fruiting shrub from Asia.
- Camptotheca acuminata - deciduous
tree from Asia (Morris Arboretum germplasm source only - others killed).
- Castanopsis cuspidata - evergreen
tree from Asia.
- Celtis bungeana, jessoensis,
sinensis - deciduous trees from Asia.
- Cercis chingii, gigantea, glabra,
yunnanensis - deciduous flowering trees from Asia.
- Chimonanthus nitens , zhetangensis
- evergreen shrubs from Asia.
- Choisya ternata, C. ternata
'Sundance' - evergreen shrubs from Mexico.
- Clerodendrum cryptophyllum
- deciduous summer flowering shrub from Asia.
- Cupressus chengiana, duclouxiana,
lusitanica, macnabiana, macrocarpa - conifer trees.
- Cyclocarya palouris - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Dalbergia hupehana - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Daphniphyllum macropodum -
evergreen tree from Asia.
- Dendropanax trifidus - evergreen
tree from Asia.
- Echinosophora koreensis - deciduous
shrub from Korea.
- Ehretia acuminata - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Emmenopterys henryi - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Enkianthus serrulatus - deciduous
shrub from Asia.
- Fokienia hodgsinii - conifer
tree from Asia.
- Gardenia 'Kleim's Hardy' -
selection of evergreen shrub from Asia (all other cultivars killed to ground).
- Gymnocladus chinensis - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Halesia diptera var. magniflora
- Florida ecotype of native deciduous tree.
- Illicium anisatum, floridanum,
henryi, mexicanum, parviflorum - evergreen shrubs.
- Itea chinensis - evergeen shrub
- Kadsura japonica cultivars
- evergreen vines from Asia (defoliated but not stem injury).
- Keteeleria davidiana - conifer
tree from Asia.
- Liquidambar acalycina - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Lithocarpus chinensis, glaber,
henryi - evergreen trees from Asia.
- Magnolia biondii, zenii - deciduous
trees from Asia.
- Magnolia schiedeana - evergreen
tree from Mexico.
- Mahonia gracilis - evergreen
shrub from Mexico.
- Manglietia yunnanensis - evergreen
tree (Magnolia relative) from Asia.
- Pinus kwangtungensis, pinea, quadrifolia,
yunnanensis - conifer trees.
- Pittosporum bicolor, heterophyllum,
undulatum - evergreen shrubs from Asia.
- Poliothrysis sinensis - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Pteroceltis tatarinowii - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Pyracomeles vilmorinii - bigeneric
hybrid evergreen shrub.
- Quercus cambyi, polymorpha, risophylla
- evergreen trees from Mexico (defoliated but no branch injury).
- Rehderodendron macrocarpum
- deciduous tree from Asia.
- Sapindus mukorossi - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Sinocalycanthus chinensis -
deciduous shrub from Asia.
- Sinojackia rehderiana, xylocarpa
- deciduous trees from Asia.
- Styrax youngae - deciduous
tree from Mexico.
- Taiwania cryptomerioides -
conifer tree from Asia.
- Zizyphus jujuba - deciduous
tree from Middle East.
Uncommon woody plants which were
damaged or killed at 2F:
- Acer pentaphyllum - deciduous
tree from Asia.
- Athrotaxis cupressoides - conifer
tree from Tasmania.
- Azara microphylla - evergreen
shrub/tree from Chile.
- Callistemon citrinus, salignus,
subulatus, viminalis - evergreen shrubs from Australia (to ground; resprouted).
- Callitris oblonga, presissii, rhomboides
- evergreen conifers from Tasmania
- Celtis choseniana - deciduous
tree from Asia (multiple accessions).
- Cercis racemosa - deciduous
tree from Asia (20-30% killback).
- Chamaerops humilis - palm from
- Cinnamomum japonicum, porrestris
- evergreen trees from Asia.
- Clethra pringlei - deciduous
tree from Mexico (young plant killed to ground - resprouted).
- Colletia armata, paradoxa -
evergreen shrubs from South America.
- Diospyros palmeri - deciduous
shrub from Texas (60% killback).
- Fitzroya cupressoides - conifer
tree from New Zealand.
- Heteromeles arbutifolia - evergreen
tree from California (30% killback).
- Heteropsis argentea - deciduous
- Laurus nobilis X Umbellularia
californica - evergreen tree hybrid (killed to ground - resprouted). Machlius
grijiei, thunbergi - evergreen trees from Asia (thunbergi killed
to ground - resprouted).
- Paliurus spina-christi - deciduous
shrub/tree from Middle East.
- Phoebe chekiangensis, shearei
- evergreen trees from Asia.
- Pileostegia viburnoides - evergreen
woody vine from Asia.
- Pittosporum tobira - evergreen
shrub from Asia (all clones except one Korean accession).
- Prunus campanulata - deciduous
tree from Asia (40% killback).
- Rhus lancea - evergreen tree
from South Afriva (killed to ground - resprouted).
- Stachyurus himalaicus - deciduous
shrub from Asia.
- Trachycarpus fortunei - palm
- Viburnum davidii, suspensum
- evergreen shrubs from Asia.
- Xylosma congestum - evergeen
shrub from Asia.
Significance to Industry: The
winter of 1993-94 was the coldest in N.C. in 9 years and gave valuable data
on hardiness of a variety of uncommon woody plants. Of those plants which showed
no injury at 2F, the most promising uncommon plants for ornamental value, hardiness,
and nursery production potentials for landscape use would include: Castanopsis
cuspidata, Daphniphyllum macropodum, Gardenia 'Kleim's Hardy', Keteeleria
davidiana, Manglietia yunnanensis, Pittosporum undulatum, Sinojackia rehderiana,
and Taiwania cryptomerioides.
1. Bean, W. J. 1976. Trees and shrubs
hardy in the British Isles. (8th ed., 2nd impression - 5 vol.) John Murray Publ.,
2. Dirr, Michael A. 1990. Manual of woody
landscape plants: their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture,
propagation and uses. pp. 654-656. Stipes Pub. Co., Champaign, IL. 1007 p.
3. Hillier Nurseries. 1991. The Hillier
manual of trees and shrubs. (6th ed.) David & Charles, Devon, UK. 704 p.
4. Hogan, Elizabeth L. (Ed.) 1988. Sunset
Western Garden Book. Lane Publishing Co., Menlo Park, CA. 592 p.
5. Krussman, G. 1985. Manual of cultivated
broad-leaved trees & shrubs. 3 vol. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
6. Krussman, G. 1985. Manual of cultivated
conifers. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 361 p.
7. Royal Horticultural Society. 1992.
New Royal Horticultural Society dIctionary of gardening. 4 vol. Stockton Press,
New York, NY.
8. Weiser, C. J. 1970. Cold resistance
and acclimation in woody plants. HortScience 5:403-410.
EVALUATIONS IN THE NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)
Tom Foley, Jr. and J. C. Raulston (original
version in Proc. SNA Res. Workers Conf. 40:(in press).
Vines have experienced a marked increase
in market popularity in recent years for use on screening trellises and fences,
for groundcovers, for covering walls, and for use in patio containers. The vigor
of most vines have made them a more difficult and awkward group of plants for
the nursery production and retailing markets to handle with often rampant growth
and resulting control and confinement issues to master. The public often feels
that as a group they are uncontrollably aggressive and must be used with great
restraint or in areas where high pruning maintenance can be provided. A wide
range of both deciduous and evergreen vines exists with diverse ornamental characteristics,
seasons of interest and growth rates (3,4,9,10,13).
Wisteria is almost synomomous
with the South as a symbol of the region, and both planted and naturalized populations
lend much color and fragrance during the spring flowering season. Two American
and three Asian species exist which produce inflorescences of varying lengths
with flower colors from white through rose, pink, lavender, and to deep purple
with some bi-colored cultivars (1,6,11,13). Some 70 cultivars have been described
(12), and 35 taxa are currently listed for sale in the largest United States
source reference (5), and 43 taxa are listed for the English market (8). The
taxonomic confusion in this group of plants is probably greater than almost
any other group of woody plants in the American horticultural field with difficulties
even at the species level (6,7). Valder devotes an entire chapter to taxonomic
issues and provides a new key to the species which is the most comprehensive
yet created (12). In addition, problems of multiple renaming of Japanese clones
with varied English names, propagation of local origin seedling types, and loss
of clonal identity in accidentally propagating understock from grafted plants
has occurred. Many unnamed, color-form ('Pink', 'White') clones are propagated
and sold which take many years to first flowering and are often of poor to moderate
quality even when flowering is achieved. Over the years, The NCSU Arboretum
(now the JC Raulston Arboretum) has acquired over 20 clones of Wisteria with
about 15 currently under evaluation for cultural and ornamental characteristics
in USDA Zone 7. Most are planted either in the model gardens area opposite
rose garden; or on the vine trellises (aka - "The KKK Korridor")
in the first walkway in the west arboretum.
Results and Discussion: The following
list summarizes 20 taxa either listed in literature or observed in The NCSU
Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) and gives their general ornamental
attributes. Taxa currently in The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)
collection are indicated by bold type.
Wisteria brachybotrys (W.
venusta ) Sieb. & Zucc. - "Silky Wisteria." One of two species
native to Japan and much rarer in cultivation than W. floribunda with only the
white form ('Shiro Kapitan') in general cultivation outside Japan. Violet, pink
and mauve-pink flowered cultivars also exist. It has much broader racemes than
W. floribunda with heavy textured flowers and rich fragrance.
- Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC. - "Japanese Wisteria".
Native to Japan and in literature as early as 712 but cultivated long before
that in the gardens of Japan. Although
long known and greatly admired, it did not enter western cultivation until
1830. Today it is the most widely grown wisteria with by far the largest
of selections and cultivar variants in garden culture. Significant cultivars
in more common use include:
- Wisteria floribunda 'Domino'
('Issai') - light blue flowers are produced in quantity on young plants
- a favorite clone for use in bonsai or potted shrub culture.
- Wisteria floribunda 'Honbeni'
('Rosea'; 'Honey Bee Pink') - lavender pink flowers on an old clone in
cultivation in the west since 1903. Reported to need correct pruning and training
for best flowering which may account for less showy performance at The NCSU
Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum); but rated by authorities as one
of the best wisteria cultivars.
- Wisteria floribunda 'Macrobotrys' (many clonal names) - noted
for its exceptionally long racemes of flowers - exceeding 3 feet in length
on well grown plants and rated as "one of the
world's great garden plants" (12).
- Wisteria floribunda 'Mon
Nishiki' ('Variegata') - cream-spotted variegated foliage and pale blue-lavender
flowers. In spring the foliage can be interesting but in the heat of the south
the variegation fades to green by midsummer.
- Wisteria floribunda 'Royal
Purple' ('Black Dragon') - young flowering and blooms early in the season
with the darkest purple flower color of any wisteria.
- Wisteria floribunda 'Shiro
Noda' ('Longissima Alba') - a white flowered form similar to 'Macrobotrys'
above with exceptionally long racemes of flowers.
- Wisteria floribunda 'Violacea
Plena' - a very old cultivar introduced into the U.S. before 1875, and
the only double-flowered wisteria. One of the darker colored cultivars. More
difficult to get to flower as a young plant than many and requires correct
culture for best results.
- Wisteria frutescens (L.)
Poir. - "American Wisteria". Native to the Southeastern U.S.
from Virginia to Florida. The first Wisteria to be known in Europe (1724) and the
one to which the generic name was first applied by Linneaus. It has violet-purple
flowers and is less vigorous and invasive than Asian species and is more easily
controlled in the landscape. Significant ornamental trait differences are
its later flowering when foliage has emerged on the plant, and the much shorter
racemes. It can have significant merit in use by combining it with the Asian
species to extend the flower display season with this species blooming some
weeks after the Asian species have finished.
- Wisteria frutescens 'Nivea'
('Alba') - A white flowered clone first described in 1854.
- Wisteria frutescens 'Amethyst
Falls' - A selected form found in Oconee County and introduced by Head-Lee
Nursery of Seneca, SC. It has deeper colored amethyst flowers and tends to
rebloom at times through the summer.
- Wisteria macrostachya (Torr. & A. Gray) Nutt. - "Kentucky Wisteria".
First described in 1838 and occurs naturally from Louisana to Illinois. Taxonomically
somewhat with W. frutescens and various authorities debate its separate
species vs. botanical variety status. 'Macrostachys' means "long spikes" in
reference to its longer racemes than W. frutescens. It is also even
later flowering than W. frutescens and can be used to further extend
the flower display period in mixed plantings. It is the hardiest wisteria
species and can be grown dependably in the Chicago area. Several cultivars
have been named from natural variants by Louisana Nursery.
- Wisteria macrostachya 'Clara
Mack' - A white flowered cultivar which flowers prolifically and at a
young age. Named for an avid gardener in S. C. who found it in the wild; introduced
to nursery trade by Woodlanders Nursery.
- Wisteria sinensis (Sims)
Sweet - "Chinese Wisteria". Cultivated in China for over a thousand
years, with the first description in western literature in the early 1700's,
subsequent introduction to Europe in 1816. Although a number of cultivars
are described, little significant variation exists except for the two main
violet and white color forms. The most important cultivars include the following:
- Wisteria sinensis 'Alba'
- a white flowered form with long racemes of flowers which hang down close
to the rachis giving a narrow appearance to the racemes.
- Wisteria sinensis 'Amethyst'
- sold by Duncan & Davies Nursery of New Zealand, this cultivar is the
most strongly scented of all wisterias and is rated by Valder as an excellent
plant sufficiently distinct to warrent cultivation (12).
- Wisteria sinensis 'Caroline'
- sold by Duncan & Davies Nursery of New Zealand under this species
name - but is considered to either be W. floribunda or a hybrid by
other authorities. It has somewhat bicolor deep violet flowers and is an extra
early flowering clone useful to add to the spread of the season. In The NCSU
Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum) it has been an outstanding plant
with precocious and extremely heavy flowering, and intense fragrance. Highly
- Wisteria sinensis 'Consequa' - a soft blue-violet flowering
clone which was introduced from a Chinese merchant's garden of this name
in 1830. Rated by Valder as "one of the great garden plants
of all time."
- Wisteria sinensis 'Jako'
('Reindeer') - a white flowered clone with strongly scented flowers. Often
first of the clones to flower in The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)
with very heavy flowering. Highly recommended.
Propagation of Wisteria can be
achieved by seed, softwood cuttings, dormant hardwood cuttings, root cuttings,
layering, whip-and-tongue or cleft grafting, and chip budding (2,12). In a
negative quote (4), the use of seed is discouraged: "Seed-raised plants are
variable and, with bad luck, may take up to twenty years to bear late flowers
of poor quality, that are then obscured by foliage." Grafting on seedling
stock of W. floribunda is widely practiced in Asian production and the vigorous
understock frequently overgrows the scion cultivar, causing a major source of
misnamed cultivars in the trade. With modern rooting hormones and intermittent
mist technology, rooting of softwood cuttings throughout the summer is the simplest
and most recommended procedure for commercial production. Wisteria are essentially
insect and disease free in common useage.
Growers should make every attempt to
secure and propagate superior, precocious flowering, known cultivar clones of
Wisteria to replace many of the poorly identified and difficult-to-flower
types currently being sold. The first comprehensive English language book devoted
to Wisteris (12) is now available and should be utilized for detailed
understanding of this group of horticulturally important decidous vines. The
author, who has 40 years of practical nursery experience in collecting and growing
this group, rates the following as the ten best wisterias: W. sinensis
'Consequa', W. brachybotrys 'Murasaki Kapitan' and 'Shiro Kapitan',
and W. floribunda 'Honbeni', 'Kuchibeni', 'Lawrence', 'Macrobotrys',
'Royal Purple', 'Shiro Noda', and 'Violacea Plena'. Greater use should be made
of the two native American species, especially for use in combination with the
Asian types to extend flowering period of a given display area.
1. Dirr, Michael A. 1990. Manual of Woody
Landscape Plants: Their Identification, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture,
Propagation and Uses. pp. 926-929. Stipes Pub. Co., Champaign, IL. 1007 p.
2. Dirr, Michael A. and Charles W. Heuser,
Jr. 1987. Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation: From Seed to Tissue Culture.
Varsity Press, Athens, GA. 239 p.
3. Hillier Nurseries. 1991. The Hillier
Manual of Trees and Shrubs. (6th ed.) pp. 572-573. David & Charles, Devon,
UK. 704 p.
4. Huxley, Anthony and Mark Griffiths
(Ed.). 1992. The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Vol.
4:711-715. The Stockton Press, NY, NY. 815 p.
5. Isaacson, Richard T. 1993. The Andersen
Horticultural Library's Source List of Plants and Seeds. p. 258. Minnesota Landscape
Arboretum, Chanhassan, MN. 261 p.
6. Krussman, Gerd. 1984. Manual of Cultivated
Broad-Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Vol 3 (Pru-Z):458-460. Timber Press, Portland,
OR. 448 p.
7. McMillan-Browse, P. 1984. Wisteria.
The Plantsman 11(2):109-122.
8. Philip, Chris and Tony Lord (Ed.)
1995. The Plant Finder. p. 698. Royal Horticultural Society, Moorland Publishing
Co. Ltd., Ashbourne, Derbyshire, England. 882 p.
9. Raulston, J. C. 1992. Evergreen vines
for commercial production in the southeastern U.S. Proc. of SNA Res. Workers
10. Raulston, J. C. and Greg Grant. 1994.
Trumpetvines (Campsis ) for landscape use. Proc. of SNA Res. Workers
11. Rehder, Alfred. 1986. Manual of Cultivated
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America. pp. 506-508. 2nd Ed. Dioscorides Press,
Portland, OR. 996 p.
12. Valder, Peter. 1995. Wisterias -
A Comprehensive Guide. Florilegium, Balmain, NSW, Australia. 160 p.
13. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, Shrubs
and Woody Vines of the Southwest. pp. 571-573. Univ. of TX Press, Austin, TX.
Well of course THE book news of
this period is The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)'s long agonized
over and awaited - The Year in Trees: Superb Woody Plants for Four-Season
Gardens by former Arboretum conifer curator and general miracle worker,
Dr. Kim Tripp, with a few accompanying notes by yours truly and lots of color
photographs culled from 81,000 slides (the most painful part of the whole process
- looking through every one of those in a two week period - ugh). As
I wrote in the introduction chapter, "Dr. Tripp has the rare combination of
a keen observational eye of a technically trained scientist, the soul and vision
of a poet to see the rarely recognized inner beauty and secrets of these plants,
and the technical proficiency of a practiced professional writer to clearly
convey this knowledge and awareness." 204 p. with 150 color photos for
$44.95 from Timber Press. We will have it for sale at various arboretum functions,
Timber Press books are almost universally available from most major bookstores,
and you can order it directly from them by mail at 1-800-327-5680 (We're the
lead featured book in their beautiful fall catalog!). Congratulations to Kim
on a magnificent job well done.
Another excellent and highly recommended
trees reference book is Shade Trees for the Southeastern United States
by Williams, Fare, Gilliam, Keever, Ponder, and Owen. 132 p. softback with color
photographs - available from the Office of Research Information, Comer Hall,
Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (205-844-4985) for $10. Another university
contribution worth having from the same office is Hollies for the Landscape
in the Southeast by Tilt, Williams, Witte and Gaylor - Circular ANR-837
- #3.25 which includes shipping - from. Make checks payable to Alabama, Cooperative
With the announcement of several "bamboo
events" in the accompanying arboretum calendar of coming events - perhaps
it is time to again remind readers of the Temperate Bamboo Quarterly published
by Sue and Adam Turtle, 30 Myers Rd., Summertown, TN 38483 (615-964-4151) -
$24 per year for 4 issues. Full of lots of good information by passionate
"I was gratified to be able to answer
promptly, and I did. I said I didn't know." Mark Twain
"Many eyes go through the meadow, but
few see the flowers in it." Emerson
"Work is the refuge of people who have
nothing better to do." Oscar Wilde
The entire winter 1994-95 issue of Arnoldia
(Volume 54, Number 4) is a unique and valuable source of information often sought
by those wrestling with the endless agony of plant nomenclature. The entire
issue is devoted to giving reference sources and authorities for naming of various
groups of ornamental plants - listed by genus with a huge literature citation
section. Outstanding reference source. (Available from: Arnoldia, Circulation
Manager, The Arnold Arboretum, 125 Arborway, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130-3519).
A strong positive review of the gardens
of the N.C. Triangle area was presented in the June 1995 issue of Travel & Leisure
Magazine, p. 10-16 (Melanie Fleischmann - Gardens: The Plots
Thicken). I roared with amusement at the quote "Going from Raulston's gardens
(The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)) to those at Duke, although
they may be geographically close, is the aesthetic equivalent of leaving a seaside
cottage for Versailles." An apt observation on our relative financial
status for certain. But the article was highly complimentary to all three of
the great University gardens of the Triangle and will surely lure many new
from across the country. It was nice to read the view in a bold text blowup
that "Serious gardeners would say that the NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston
Arboretum) is to the nursery trade what Milan is to the fashion industry." Incidentally
also in June our local newsmagazine published the results of their annual reader's
poll (Spectator 17(30):9 - June 8-15, 1995) and awarded The NCSU Arboretum
the JC Raulston Arboretum) their award as Best Arboretum in the Triangle in
My greatest laugh of the last several
months came in reviewing a complimentary (one should never laugh in a gift
horses' mouth I realize) copy of Educator's Tech Exchange - a publication
for the Academic Computing Community with an issue devoted to how the new high
tech world of computers is going to transform teaching. To illustrate the wonders
of the World Wide Web as a source of unlimited useful information, they illustrate
it with a page on teaching ornamental plants through student review material
sheets - with a color photo of each plant and all the information about it
can be pulled up on screen. Unfortunately - the example they just happened
to use to illustrate the advantages of this fine system - Cornus florida
- flowering dogwood; was illustrated by a beautiful photograph of a bright pink
weeping cherry - Prunus subhirtella 'Pendula'. Well - I've done far worse
in my writings here over the years - but I never claimed to be high tech or
An article in the Sunday, November 24,
1994 New York Times by Anne Raver - What Horrifies Roaches and Grows on Trees?,
yields the observation that the yellowish-green grapefruit-sized fruits of Osage
Orange, Maclura pomifera are extremely effective at repelling roaches
("think of them as winter floral arrangements - doubling as roach controls").
Horticultural travelers are well aware
of the riches of the Philadelphia area for innumerable public gardens. A new
book, Gardens of Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley, by William M.
Klein, Jr. (former director of the Morris Arboretum and currently director
the National Tropical Botanical Garden in Hawaii) with photography by the noted
Derek Fell, presents these gardens and their history and contents in a superb
manner. 327 pages with 300 full color photographs - for $29.95 + $3.50 shipping
from Temple University Press, Borad & Oxford Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19122
A "local" southeastern garden center
is Charleston and a new travel guide to that area has also appeared: Gardens
of Historic Charleston by James R. Cothran from University of South Carolina
Press, 205 Pickens St., Columbia, SC 29208 (1-800-768-2500) - $39.95 + $4 handling).
The Dictionary of British & Irish
Botanists and Horticulturists by Ray Desmond is a useful reference with
13,000 entries covering the contributions of 1,500 gardeners and garden designers,
and over 1,500 nurserymen in British Isles history. 1994, 825 p. - $250 fromTaylor & Francis,
1900 Frost Road, Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007-1598 (1-800-821-8312). Nice to
see something like this done - but when are we going to respect the
rich history and heritage of American horticulture enough for someone to do
a U.S. companion volume? Badly needed.
One contribution to American horticultural
history is a new book on the history of the development of the Arnold Arboretum
of Harvard University - Science in the Pleasure Ground - A History of the
Arnold Arboretum by Ida Hay, a beautiful companion book to the earlier volume
on Arnold Arboretum plant introductions by Dr. Spongberg. It is available from
Northeastern University Press, C/O CUP Services, Box 6525, Ithaca, NY 14851
- $39.95 + $3 handling.
For Magnoliaphiles - several wonderful
recent additions - Check List of the Cultivated Magnolias (1994) - biographical
listing of over 1,000 magnolia cultivars with original descriptions and comments.
$15 + $3.50 shipping from: The Magnolia Society, Also, The World Of Magnolias
by Dorothy J. Callaway from Timber Press - 260 p. with many illustrations and
color photos ($44.95)
Another new speciality plant reference
that is excellent - Wisterias - A Comprehensive Guide by Peter Valder.
This is the first book devoted entirely to this beautiful group of woody vines.
Illustrated with stunning color photographs from a lifetime of collecting and
growing these plants in a nursery in Australia. Amazingly comprehensive - right
down to describing plants in The NCSU Arboretum (now the JC Raulston Arboretum)
collections! - and newly introduced U.S. cultivars. Highly recommended - and
it is hoped it will stimulate commercial production of a wider and better range
of Wisteria cultivars in the U.S. - as Vertrees did years ago with his classic
book on Japanese Maples. 160 p. - from Florilegium (Australia) but handled already
by many U.S. book sources.
Out-of-print horticultural books from:
Books from BREE, 6716 Clybourn
Avenue #153, North Hollywood, CA 91606 (818-766-5156; e-mail: email@example.com).
Gardens, Quest Rare Books, 774
Santa Ynez, Stanford, CA 94305 (415-324-3119).
Fair Meadow Books, Emily Collins
and Laura Levine, 36 Rucum Road, Roxbury, CT 06783 (203-354-9040).
Landscape #495, Elisabeth Woodburn,
Booknoll Farm, P. O. Box 398, Hopewell, NJ 08525 (609-466-0522).
Brooks Books, P. O. Box 21473,
Concord, CA 94521 (510-672-4566).
Patricia Ledlie Bookseller, Inc.
One Bean Rd., P. O. Box 90, Buckfield, ME 04220 (207-336-2778).
There are hundreds of new gardening books
issued each year, and as Allen Lacy states "sadly, many - perhaps the majority
- are early candidates for a garage sale." But there are treasures at intervals
- and a recent such instant "classic" which will long be read is A Year at
North Hill: Four Seasons in a Vermont Garden by the noted writers, gardeners,
and designers Joe Eck and Wayne Winterrowd. Again - Allen Lacy says it far
than I ever could "it is toothsome - passionate, reflective, inspiring, endlessly
quotable and filled with good humor and humanity." Available in most bookstores
or book suppliers (e.g. Capability's 1-800-247-8154) - published by Little,
During the 1995 NCSU Arboretum (now the
JC Raulston Arboretum) trip to England and Ireland, while at Mt. Usher Gardens
in Ireland - we all stocked up on books from a used bookstore to take us through
a long day of ferry and bus travel ahead. A random grabbing of two "local" Irish
books proved to be fortutitous - with essentially the best reading of my over
50 fiction books so far this year. Oranges from Spain by David Park (Jonathan
Cape Publishers) is perhaps my best book of the year with many powerful short
stories on the Northern Ireland experience. Nearly as good is State of the
Art - Short Stories by the New Irish Writers - Edited by David Marcus -
with a reworking of the cliche "igorance is bliss" in the statement in one story,
"He cursed intelligence, culture, education and insight. These things
had deprived him of comfort and a happy life."
Three recommended books in my current
reading pile talk about the philosophy of life and gardening - worth looking
Why We Garden - Cultivating A Sense
of Place - by Jim Nollman - 312 p. - Henry Holt & Company, NY.
The Attentive Heart - Conversations
with Trees - by Stephanie Kaza - 258 p. - Fawcett Columbine, NY.
In the Eye of the Garden - by
Mirabel Osler - 176 p. - Macmillan Publishing Co., NY.
Earlier this year The NCSU Arboretum
(now the JC Raulston Arboretum) sponsored a growers workshop on speciality cut
materials for the design industry. The following references were shared as being
useful in this area:
Speciality Cut Flowers by Dr.
Allan M. Armitage. 372 p. Timber Press.
Postharvest Handling and Storage of
Cut Flowers, Florist Greens and Potted Plants. Nowak and Rudnicki. Timber
Proceedings of Commercial Field Production
of Cut and Dried Flowers. The Center for Alternative Crops and Products,
Dept. Hort. Sci., University of MN, St. Paul, MN.
Proceedings of the 2nd National Conference
on Speciality Cut Flowers. Dr. Allan Armitage, Dept. Hort. Sci.,
University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
Holland Bulb Forcer's Guide.
Dr. A. A. DeHertogh, Dept. Hort. Sci., NCSU, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609.
Speciality Cut Flowers - A Commercial
Growers Guide. Stevens and Gast, Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas State
University, Manhattan, KS.
Association of Speciality Cut Flower
Growers (ASCFG) produces The Cut Flower Quarterly. Membership, ASCFG, MPO
Box 268, Oberlin, OH 44074. Can also provide back issues of Proceedings of National
Conferences on Speciality Cut Flowers.
A new and quite elegant periodical from
England is Gardens Illustrated with quality writing and beautiful photographs.
It can be seen on larger and more comprehensive
speciality newstands - or can be ordered directly through their phone credit
card hotline at England 01373-451777 ($52 per year - 6 issues) - or by writing
to Gardens Illustrated: Freepost (SW6096), Frome, Somerset, BA11 1YA, England.
Perhaps the best gardening book in existance
in respect to climatic adaptation information is the Sunset Western Garden Book
which has been the gospel for the horticultural faithful in the western
U.S. for the last 40 years. It has developed and uses a unique climatic mapping
system of 24 zones of adaptation throughout the west half of the U.S. and specifies
the adaptation of each plant in the book to these zones. From 1954 to 1994
four million copies were sold. A new edition arrived in 1995 - and is of course
magnificent and a must for any plantsmans reference collection. An interesting
concept is explained by Joseph Williamson in a Pacific Horticulture story on
this new edition: "There is a subtle change that the gardening public
may not notice - references to drought have been eliminated. That word is more
to the eastern United States, which experiences the dictionary definition of
drought - periods of dryness. Here in the West it is more accurate to say that
we have periods of wetness; aridity is the ever ongoing condition."
Arborvillage Farm Nursery, 15604
County Road "CC", PO Box 227, Holt, M) 64048 (816-264-3911).
Unquestionably the finest array of uncommon woody plant cultivars of any woody
in the U.S. - astonishing listing and very, very dangerous to the pocketbook
Sweetbay Farm, 4260 Enon Road,
Coolidge, GA 31738 (912-255-1688) - specializing in magnolias (14 types - $10-25@)
and pawpaws, Asimina triloba.
Plants Preferred, P. O. Box
287, Old Westbury, New York, NY 11568-0287 (516-579-6517). Helleborus
Southeastern Palm and Exotic Plant
Society, C/O Will Roberds, 2652 Woodridge Drive, Decatur, GA 30033 (404-634-4391)
has a comprehensive listing of palms, their characteristics and cross-indexed
to 10 nursery sources where each may be purchased.