Many projects use an introduction "to set the stage"
for, or anchor, the project. This often contributes to motivating
learners. Occupational skills, such as graphic arts or Web page
designers, typically use the domain as the anchor, since the
skills are authentic to the profession.
task, guiding question or driving question explicates what will
be accomplished and embeds the content to be studied. The tasks
should be engaging, challenging and doable.
Resources provide data to be used and can include hypertext
links, computers, scientific probes, compasses, CD-ROM's, eyewitnesses,
process and investigation include the steps necessary to complete
the task or answer the guiding or driving question. The process
should include activities that require higher-level and critical
thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation
Guidance and scaffolding.
As learners need help, guidance and scaffolding will be needed.
These can include student-teacher interactions, practice worksheets,
peer counseling, guiding questions, job aides, project templates,
learning. Many projects include groups or teams, especially
where resources are limited. But, cooperative learning may also
employ rounds of peer reviews or group brainstorming sessions.
The superior examples of project-based learning offer an opportunity
for closure, debriefing or reflection. These may include relevant
in-class discussions, journal entries or even follow-up questions
about what students have learned.