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Research

Alternative Strawberry Production Systems

  • Organic production/cover crops
  • Strawberry Schoolyard Gardens

Caneberry (Blackberry and Raspberry) Cultural Studies

Post Harvest and Bioactive Compound Studies

Raspberry and Blackberry Breeding

  • Two breeding programs have existed at NCSU. The first program, headed by William Carlos released several red raspberry cultivars including: Dixie (1938) Mandarin (1955), Southland (joint with USDA 1963), one black raspberry Manteo (1953) and two dewberry- type blackberries, Cameron (1938) and Carolina (1955) (See article).
  • The early breeding program ceased to exist in the early 1960s and most of the breeding material was lost. Recently one of the cultivars from that program, 'Mandarin' was found. See article on Mandarin.
  • In the current breeding program our primary objectives are to develop new raspberry cultivars that are tolerant to the high summer temperatures and to the fluctuating winter temperatures. A smaller part of our program is focused on the development of fall fruiting blackberries. In both programs, we are looking for berries that are great tasting, large, pest tolerant and have good shelf life.
  • A U.S. Plant Patent was awarded in 2010 for a primocane fruiting red raspberry, 'Nantahala'. This cultivar is adapated to the high elevations of western North Carolina.

Selected Publications

  • Bradish, C.M., P. Perkins-Veazie, G.E. Fernandez, G. Xie, W. Jia. 2012. Comparison of Flavonoid Composition of Red Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) Grown in the Southern United States. J. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 605779-5786. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jf203474e
  • Molina-Bravo, R., B.R. Sosinski, C. Arellano, and G.E. Fernandez. 2011. A Protocol to Assess Heat Tolerance in a Segregating Population of Raspberry Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence. Scientia Hort. In Press.
  • Garland, B. C., M.S. Schroeder-Moreno, Fernandez, G.E. and N.G. Creamer. 2011. Influence of Summer Cover Crops and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Strawberry Production in the Southeastern United States. HortSci. 46(7):985–992.
  • Fernandez, G.E. and J.R. Ballington. 2010. Performance of Primocane-fruiting Experimental Blackberry Cultivars in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Hort Tech. 20 (6):996-1000.
  • Fernandez, G.E. and J.R. Ballington. 2009. ‘Nantahala’ red raspberry. HortScience. 44:25-26.
  • Tzanetakis, I.E., T.L. Guzmán-Baeny, Z.P.VanEsbroeck, G.E. Fernandez, and R. R. Martin. 2009. First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in blackberry in the United States. Plant Disease. 93:432.
  • Warmund, M.R., P. Guinan and G. Fernandez. 2008. Temperatures and cold damage to small fruit crops across the eastern U.S. associated with the April 2007 Freeze. HortScience. 43:1643-1647.
  • Ballington, J.R. and G.E. Fernandez. 2008. Rubus breeding for the Southeastern United States. Acta Hort. 777:87-90.
  • Leandro, L.F.S., L. M. Ferguson, F. J. Louws, and G. E. Fernandez. 2007. Strawberry growth and productivity in fumigated compared to compost-amended production systems. HortSci. 42:227-231. (Author order is from most significant to least, but program director is last)
  • Leandro, L.F.S., T. Guzman, L.M. Ferguson, G.E. Fernandez, and F.J. Louws. 2007. Population dynamics of trichoderma in fumigated and compost-amended soil and on strawberry roots. Applied Soil Ecology. 35:237-246.
  • Sydorovych, O., C.D. Safley, L.M. Ferguson, E.B. Poling, G.E. Fernandez, P.M. Brannen, D.L. Monks and F.J. Louws. 2006. Economic evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives for the production of strawberries in the southeastern United States. Hort Tech. 16:118-128.
  • Safley, C., O. Boldea, and G. Fernandez. 2006. Estimated costs of producing, harvesting, and marketing blackberries in the Southeastern United States. Hort Tech. 16:109-117 (Author order is from most significant to least, but program director is last)
  • Martin, R.R., I.E. Tzanetakis, R. Gergerich, G. Fernandez and Z. Pesic. 2004. Blackberry yellow vein associated virus: A new crinivirus found in blackberry. Acta Hort 656:137-142.
  • Fernandez, G. E. and J.R. Ballington. 2003. Double cropping of strawberries in an annual system using conditioned plug plants and high tunnels. Acta Hort. 614:547-552.
  • Butler, L.M., G.E. Fernandez, and F.J. Louws. 2002. Strawberry plant growth parameters and yield among transplants of different types and from different geographic sources, grown in a plasticulture system. HortTechnology. Vol. 12:6-9.
  • Fernandez, G.E., L.M. Butler, and F.J. Louws. 2001. Strawberry growth and development in an annual plasticulture system. HortScience. Vol. 36:100-103.
  • Fernandez, G.E. 2001. Fall-applied row covers enhance yield in plasticulture strawberries. HortTechnology. 11:440-444.
  • Fernandez, G.E. and M.P. Pritts. 1996. Carbon supply reduction has a minimal influence on current year’s red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Fruit production. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 121:473-477.
  • Fernandez, G.E. and M.P. Pritts. 1994. Growth, carbon acquisition and source-sink relationships in ‘Titan’ red raspberry. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119:1163-1168.
  • Fernandez, G.E. and M.P. Pritts. 1993. Growth and source-sink relationships in ‘Titan’ red raspberry. Acta Hort. 352:151-157.
  • Clark, J.R., K. Irvine and G.E. Fernandez. 1993. Effects of gibberellic acid on seed traces of 'Venus' and 'Saturn' grapes. J. Small Fruit and Vit. 2:11-19.
  • Patten, K., E. Neuendorff, G. Nimr, J.R. Clark and G. Fernandez. 1991. Cold injury of southern blueberries as a function of germplasm and season of flower bud development. HortScience 26:18-20.
  • Fernandez, G.E., J.R. Clark and J.N. Moore. 1991. Effect of seed coat manipulation on the germination of stenospermocarpic grape embryos cultured in ovulo. HortScience 26:1220.
  • Fernandez, G.E. and J.R. Clark. 1991. In vitro propagation of the erect thornless blackberry ‘Navaho’. HortScience 26:1219.

Patents

  • NC451, ‘Nantahala’ primocane fruiting red raspberry. Gina Fernandez and James R. Ballington. US Plant Patent 20689.