Pinus banksiana Lamb.

Jack pine



*Nomenclature:

Pinus sylvestris var. divaricata Ait., Hort. Kwe. 3: 366. 1789.
Pinus divaricata Dum.-Cours., Bot. Cult. 3:760. 1802; as var. of P. sylvestris L.; nom. subnud.
Pinus banksiana Lamb., Descr. Genus Pinus 1:7, pl. 3. 1803.
Pinus divaricata (Ait.) Sudw., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 20: 44. 1893.

DERIVATION: Dedicated to Joseph Banks (1743-1820), director of Kew Gardens, England, botanical collector, and patron of sciences, to whom its author was obliged for first knowledge of it.

OTHER COMMON NAMES: scrub pine, gray pine, black pine, princess pine, Banksian pine, Hudson Bay pine.

*(From Little, 1979.)


Tree Characteristics:


Jack pine is the most widely distributed pine in Canada and most northerly pine of the United States. These tree usually grows in even-age pure or mixed stands, for it is a pioneer species that readily invades areas disturbed by fire or other agents. Jack pine also grows on poorer, less fertile soils than its associates red pine (Pinus resinosa) and white pine (P. strobus). Early settlers considered this an evil tree, probably because no crops would grow around it due to poor soil conditions. Infertility among women and animals was thought to have been caused by evil spirits inside this mystical pine.

Human uses: pulpwood, lumber, round timber, Christmas trees. Jack pine is important in the stabilization of watersheds. Canadian Indians formerly used jack pine wood as frames their canoes.

Animal uses: Serves as habitat and breeding area for the endangered Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii). These small birds utilize jack pine stands ranging from 1.5 and 6 m (5 to 20 ft) tall larger than 32 ha (80 acres). White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browse saplings and young trees and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) feed on seedlings. Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) feed on bark which often leads to deformed trees. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), chipmunks (Eutamias spp.), mice (Peromyscus leucopus), goldfinches (Carduelis tristis), and robins (Turdus migratorius) consume seeds.


Contortae pines Range and Habitat Interactive Comparison Tool
Bark Reproductive Structures Glossary
Leaves and Buds Additional Images References