More recently, in 1978, the Supreme Court ruled in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke that while race was a legitimate factor in school admissions, the use of quotas was not constitutional.
In 1989, in City of Richmod v. Croson, a program setting aside 30% of city construction funds for black-owned firms was challenged. The Supreme Court ruled that the program violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
In 1996, in Hopwood v. University of Texas Law School, the plaintiffs challenged the school's affirmative action program. The 5th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that any consideration of race is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court declined to review the decision.
In 1997, Proposition 209 banned all forms of affirmative action in California.
In 1998, the state of Washington enacted Initiative 200, which abolished state affirmative action measures.
In 2002, the Sixth Court of Appeals ruled that the University of Michigan's Law School admissions policy is constitutional.
In 2003, the Supreme Court ruled against the University of Michigan's admissions process based on points.