Types of Peer Review
The terms formative evaluation and summative evaluation
have generally been adopted for their usefulness in the evaluation of
teaching just as these terms have been used in program evaluation. It
is critical to start the review process by defining the goals and use
of any evaluation activities.
Formative evaluation describes activities that are to provide
teachers with information that they can use to improve their teaching.
The information is intended for their personal use, rather than public
inspection. As a result, formative evaluation frequently is less formal,
focuses on specific aspects of teaching, is ongoing, and includes a wide
range of activities. It is a basis for the development of effective teaching
throughout a career.
Summative evaluation describes activities that are conducted
to gain information needed to make personnel decisions such as promotion,
reappointment, tenure, or comprehensive review of tenured faculty relative
to teaching performance. Consequently, the information collected becomes
part of the faculty personnel file. It is often more general and comparative
in nature. It may provide results of ratings or rankings, or summary information.
The information should provide comparative information which enables the
evaluator to determine the quality of teaching performance with respect
to the performance of other peers.