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Our peer-reviewed sister journal: Lignocellulose (no author payment)

Past conference: NWBC 2015

Cover images:








May 2014


August 2013

Sound Board Vibration Pinus


TOF-SIMS image

TMP fibers, pine

Bordered Pits

Bambusa cross-section

Copper-plated wood

Ancient wood

Forest litter: leaves, pine needles



Stained fiber sheath

Cover Vol 5 Issue 2, Lake Johnson

Coastal Scene, BioResources Vol. 5, Issue 1

Cover 4_4: wasp paper

BioRes 4(3) Electrospun

Cover 4 issue 2 Vuokatti, Finland view

Black gum

Cover 3 4

BioRes 3 3 white pine theme

Kraft fibers seen with polarized light


Sap on cut douglas fir

Oil Palm Cover

Cover May 2007

Cover, Volume 2, Issue 1

Cover of issue 2, vol. 1

Cover, Vol. 1, Issue 1


Author Instructions
for the Online Journal BioResources

All articles and opinion pieces to be considered for publication in BioResources are to be submitted online, using the Submit Item feature, by selecting "Author submissions" at left. More instructions regarding using the submissions software are given below. Articles must be written in English. Major forms of standard written English (e.g. U.S., British, Australian) may be used, as long as one is consistent. Authors must keep in mind that submitted articles must be previously unpublished material, with the exception that material appearing in the preprints to a conference, etc., can be republished, with the permission of the copyright owner and there must be an Aknowledgments section stating the first appearance of the material, as well as describing the permissions under which the material is being published again.

In cases where the DOC (WORD) or ODT (Open Office) file for an article is larger than 2 megabytes, the article itself will not be able to be uploaded during the online submission process (see below). Nevertheless, authors are asked to please complete the entire online submission process through "Finish submission", just skipping the step of uploading their article. The latter should be sent, subsequently, in an e-mail to the editor, with an explanation that the author has opened a corresponding account in Open Journal Systems.

Graphic images can be sumbitted, as an option. The editors will choose from one to six such images to include on the electronic cover of each issue. The image also will appear with the abstract of published articles in our "OJS" system. Instructions are given further down on this page.

Page expenses: Authors who submit articles after June 18, 2010 intended for publication in BioResources have been requested to make a contribution to cover page expenses.  These funds will cover our costs for proofreading, file management, and publication infrastructure.  Any excess funds will be used exclusively for undergraduate scholarship grants (to pay for tuition in the Department of Forest Biomaterials at North Carolina State University).  This arrangement provides sustainable funding so that we can continue to provide high-quality, peer-reviewed articles without charge to readers on the web – ensuring that articles receive the highest exposure and potential impact associated with open access publishing. Another reason for the page expense requests is that the rate of submission of articles has been increasing rapidly, and we wish to keep the number of published articles at a manageable level.

The page expense amounts are as follows (request amounts set March 19, 2013):

  1. Suggested for payment within 30 days after the publication date: $105 per published page.
  2. Standard rate, within one year of the publication date: $132 per published page

Though estimated expenses are subject to change, the rate associated with a specific article remains fixed based on the information that was posted on this webpage at the time of its submission.  The numbers of pages are to be based on the published version of an article, not on the submitted version (for instance when page breaks are changed and when images are enlarged for easier viewing).

Page discounts for exceptionally well formatted, longer articles may be provided, at the decision of the editor, as follows: Pages beyond the 10th page may be counted by the editor as half-a-page each.

See "How to Pay" near the bottom of this page. (Please note that the instructions for authors here are slightly different from those intended for other readers who wish to support the journal with their contributions.)

Author's certification: By the act of submitted an article to BioResources, the author(s) are certifying that the following statements all are true:

1.  The article and its contents are original.  The material was written by the author(s), and it has not been published elsewhere, except in the case of (a) a thesis by one of the authors, (b) an abstract having less than 1500 words, or (c) material accompanying a conference presentation, with the stipulation that the copyright owner has given permission for publication in BioResources and a statement describing the initial publication (even if just figures) and permission statement appears in an Acknowledgements section of the submitted article.
2.  No other journal is currently considering the submitted article for publication.
3.  Nothing in the article violates the personal or property rights of other individuals, including plagiarism or libel.
4.  Permission has been obtained for use of any previously copyrighted material that appears in the article, and such permissions are disclosed in an Acknowledgements section of the submitted article.
5. All new findings and conclusions in the submission have been generated as a result of controlled experimental or modeling designs and have been reached with acceptable levels of precision and/or accuracy commensurate with what is expected in a professional journal.
6. The author(s) know about and agree with the need for the journal to collect voluntary donations from authors corresponding to the number of published pages so that the journal will be able to sustain itself and strive for a high quality of service and output (with excess funds going for undergraduate tuition scholarships at the host academic department).

Article Preparation: Authors are required to use a template (see below), so that the format matches the example. Please see the instructions for formatting your submission. For instance, the font styles, sizes, and margins need to match that of the template example for each item in the article. After renaming a copy of the template file, it is recommended to copy items from your original file one-by-one, using a commmand sequence such as "paste special, unformatted text," and copy to the next line after the corresponding item in the template file. Then make any adjustments so that the font style, size, margins, etc., exactly match the format of the original content of the template. Then delete the default text from the original template item.

Please be aware that submitted files larger than 2 MB will be rejected by the automated submission system (called Open Journal Systems). If the editable file for your submitted article is longer than this, please e-mail it directly to the editors. However, please ALSO complete the on-line submission process, even if you skip the step of uploading a document file. You will know that you are done after you have entered "Finish Sumbission." At that point in the process you will have an opportunity to select "Active files" and make note of the ID number (which will be referred to as "BioRes ####", replacing the #'s with digits) of your submitted article.

We would be very pleased if you make a practice of always including the lable "BioRes ####" (with your article's ID number repacing "####") in the subject line of your e-mail.

Authors can ease the burden on the process of editing and reviewing by avoiding the use of excessively high resolution graphics. When incorporating images into an article to be submitted to BioResources, it is recommended that the image files be modified, as necessary, so that no one of them has a file size larger than about 250 kBytes. Most image processing software provides ways to descrease file size, often by reducing the nominal size of a JPEG image, etc. Due to the default settings that are used during the creation of PDF files, the resolution of the published version usually is not affected by moderate reductions in the resolution of the original image files that become inserted into a document. We also encourage authors to use color graphics. There is no additional cost for color.

If you are interested in submitting an Opinion Article (Editorial) or a Review Article, then please scroll down (below the discussion of peer-review article submissions).

Peer-reviewed articles: In the case of original research articles, prospective authors are required to use the exact format as exhibited in the downloadable MS WORD or Open Office Writer article template document. Please click on the appropriate link in the previous sentence, depending on the word processing system that you will be using to format your article. Just replace the title and other contents of the downloaded template document with your own title and other contents. When pasting, please use a "paste special / unformatted" sequence so that your copying does not introduce unintended changes in fonts, margins, or various auto-format settings of the software. Don't worry about making changes to the footer that comes from the template; the editors will take care of those details. (You also can download a PDF version of the article template, but you won't be able to edit it.) Within the text of the template you will find further author instructions. The following is a summary. A more detailed "Style Guide" for articles in general appears at the bottom of this page.

Abstract length: Target 150 words; maximum 200 words

Article length:
Typically 4 to 20 pages, following the required format

Science and engineering of biomass from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities; examples include advances in wood science, new uses of crop residues, biofuels, biocomposites, papermaking, and chemical production that is based on plant material that contains substantial amounts of cellulose or lignin. The journal scope does not include consideration of articles mainly dealing with waste remediation, food, or pharmaceuticals (except as derived form lignocellulosic sources).

Please bear in mind that the likely audience will be multi-disciplinary; your work needs to be understood by scientists and specialists who may have very different backgrounds from your own.

Opinion pieces: The editors will have sole discretion in accepting a limited number of suitable opinion pieces, which will be called "Editorials." These items will not be peer-reviewed. Suitable opinion pieces will be selected based on the judgment of the editors that the ideas will help to stimulate a discussion among practitioners in the field of lignocellulosic bioresources. Prospective authors should use the exact format as exhibited in the downloadable MS WORD or Open Office Writer opinion piece template document. Note that this template is different in detail from that used for peer-review articles (see previous item). A PDF version is also available to look at, but you won't be able to use it as a template.

Length: Typically 1 to 2 pages, following the required format

We are particularly interested in opinions related to the pace, direction, and barriers to implementation of sustainable, environmentally responsible solutions to society's needs for energy, materials, and products.

Review articles: The editors may either invite review articles or consider articles that are submitted without request. Review articles that appear to generally fall within the scope and other requirements of the journal will be subject to the same peer-review process that was discussed in the case of research articles. Authors who are planning major review articles are encouraged to contact the editors at an early stage to confirm that the topic is within the scope and interest of the journal.

Format: The required format is similar to that used for research articles, with the exception that headings such as "Experimental," "Results and Discussion," and "Conclusions" should be replaced with more appropriate headings, consistent with the contents of the article. Please use a downloadable review article template as an MS WORD or Open Office Writer file. You also can look at a PDF version, but you won't be able to use it as a template.

Length: The length of review articles generally should be within 4 to 20 pages, but the literature references are not included in the page count. The editors reserve the right to waive the 20 page limit in case of reviews of unusual quality and importance. However, it is well appreciated that many articles can be improved in quality by shortening them.

Contact information: If questions remain that are not answered in this template document or elsewhere on the website, please feel free to contact the editors at one of the following email addresses: or

Optional Submission of a Candidate “Cover Graphic”

Would you like to compete to have an image representing your research appear on the electronic cover of BioResources? This can be done when you are about to submit an article.  Authors have the option of choosing to submit a “cover graphic candidate” image, following instructions given below.  The editors will wait until a quarterly issue has been completed.  Then they will select between one and six cover graphics to be included on the issue’s electronic cover, which will then appear at the journal’s website. 

Main criteria to be used by the editors in selecting a cover graphic to be used in a quarterly issue will include…

  1. Visual appeal and originality of the cover graphic candidate
  2. Novelty, quality, and likely impactfulness of the corresponding article
  3. Ability of the cover graphic to convey a sense of an important idea or finding

What are your chances of having your cover graphic candidate selected?  That will depend on how many other groups of authors decide to compete.  Let’s suppose (though it is not too likely) that 100% of the authors were to submit a cover graphic candidate, and let’s say that 100 of those articles happened to be published in a hypothetical future issue.  Then, if the editors were to select six images to appear on the cover, then the rate of acceptance would be 6%.  And what if just 10 sets of authors had submitted a cover graphic candidate?  Then the rate of acceptance could be as high as 60%.

What will happen if you decide to skip the competition?  The answer is “nothing”.  Submission of an optional cover graphic candidate will have no influence on whether or not an article is selected for peer review or, if so selected, whether the article will be later accepted for publication.   So, by skipping the preparation of a cover graphic, you can save time and effort.  But you might miss out on some fun and competition.

What about if an article is not accepted for publication?  In such cases the image will not be used by the journal for any purpose.

Some reasons why the editors would like to encourage some authors to submit a “cover graphic candidate” are as follows:

  1. To reward several sets of authors for their exemplary work and creativity
  2. To stimulate reader interest in the journal
  3. To generate some excitement and fun by having a small contest

Image Preparation

Instructions and rules for preparation of an optional cover image candidate are as follows:

  1. The original should be prepared in a “landscape” field similar to that used in PowerPoint or equivalent software.  The size of the graphic should correspond to approximately the full field provided by the software.  It is recommended that the image should be relatively simple and bold, pleasant to look at in “full screen” mode, but also somewhat attractive when reduced the “thumbnail” size.
  2. Emphasis should be placed on the ability of a picture to convey a sense of an emerging concept or finding.
  3. Colored images are preferred.
  4. Brief text is encouraged for brief labeling, or possibly one brief sentence, etc.  Arial bold font in the size range 28 to 48 is recommended, with the size depending on the context.  Keep in mind that the image text ought to be somewhat visible even when the image is in “thumbnail” form.
  5. Before submitting the article, convert a copy of it to “.jpg” image format.  Please check the image quality of the “.jpg” file to make sure that it is of suitable resolution to look good on a computer screen.

Image Submission

  1. During STEP FOUR of the online submission (using Open Journal Systems) please upload your cover graphic candidate as a “.jpg” file.  Only one candidate is permitted per article. 
  2. If you decide later to prepare and submit a cover graphic candidate, it is recommended to send your “.jpg” file as an attachment in an e-mail, making sure that your article’s ID number appears in the subject line in the format “BioRes 1234”, where “1234” needs to be replaced by the actual ID number for your article.  Send copies to and .
  3. Note that your cover graphic candidate may also be selected to appear as a thumbnail image in the Open Journal Systems (OJS) table of contents and as a larger image with the abstract of your article in the OJS system.

The following are some examples to stimulate your imagination and give a sense of the range of graphics that could be prepared.  However, please keep in mind that originality is important.

Kraft fibers becoming NCC

Chitin powder sheet & nanofiber sheet

Epicarp, Kernel, Mesocarp, Endocarp

FTIR Aromatic skeletal & CO stretch

3-point bonding test format

Pulping and deinking of pink mixture

Enzymatic erosion of xylocellulose

High sulfidity cooking process diagram

When a cover image is selected and published, it will appear above a text box that provides the citation of the corresponding published article.  Thus, it is not necessary for the authors to bother with putting that kind of information within the cover graphic candidate image itself.

Submission Instructions

BioResources is one of many online journals that use an automated software system known as "Open Journal Systems" (OJS). This sytem is highly sophistocated and capable, but it is necessary to follow certain procedures. Please be aware that the appearance of some of the screens will change, depending on whether or not you have logged on, registered, etc. Here is a general stepwise procedure that may be useful in case you run into questions during the submissions process:

1. From the links at the upper left of the present screen, select "Author Submissions."

2. Log in. Unless you have set your system to log you in automatically, you ought to first look at the upper right of your screen. Look for the word USER. Below that heading find the word Username, with a box at the right. Below that you should see the word Password, with another box at the right. Please use these boxes if you already have registered. If you are not yet registered with the site (in other words, you don't yet have a user name and password), then click on the "Log In" box just below "Password," and then follow the prompts. Please write down your user name and password. Authors who have forgotten their password or user ID should contact one of the editors, who can let you know your ID and create a new password for you.

3. The next screen that you come to usually will have the title "BioResources" at the top, on a gray-green field. Below a series of links, you should see another heading, "User Home." Just below that, you should again see the word "BioResources" as well as the underlined word "Author," which is a link. To submit an article you must select your role as "Author."

4. The next screen may show your "Active Submissions," if you have previously submitted an article. To submit a new article, look near the bottom of the text area, just above the words, "". You will want to select the following underlined link: "STEP ONE OF THE SUBMISSIONS PROCESS." Select that link, and follow the prompts.

5. Continue through the process, following the prompts. Make sure to fill in the four required check-boxes, if true. If you run into difficulty (for instance maybe your file exceeds the 2 megabyte maximum size), please contact the editors. Though it is very helpful to the process to have the submission carried out by means of the software system, the editors also can enter the information after receiving a manuscript by e-mail. Make sure to select "save and continue" at the bottom of each screen, and do not stop until after you have selected "Finish submission" at the bottom of the final page.

6. Also, when you get to the very end of the submissions process on OJS you will have an opportunity to select a link to "Active submissions". It is recommended to click on that link and make note of the ID number of your article. Let's suppose that you found that your ID number was "1234". In that case you would make sure to put "BioRes 1234" somewhere in the subject line of each e-mail that you send to the editor who is assigned to your article.

Writing Style Suggestions for New Authors

Though BioResources welcomes a variety of writing styles, including various regional differences in spelling, we are proposing a set of style preferences to encourage uniformity in the journal. When in doubt, we would encourage authors to employ the following guidelines:

1. Generally avoid the use of personal pronouns. Use passive voice to describe actions done by the authors (e.g., "The tests were completed," "The central hypothesis of this work was tested in a level 5 cleanroom."). The reason behind this is to emphasize and encourage objectivity of scientific work to be published in the journal.

2. Generally use past tense when describing experimental methods and results (e.g., "All absorbance spectra were collected on a Model XXX HP diode array spectrophotomer."). The reason for this is that we want the reader to be able to know very clearly what parts of the article represent work by the authors.

3. Favor the use of present tense in the "Introduction" and in discussions that describe the state of the art of scientific knowledge in a given field. For example, if there is a consensus among researchers, the following conjectural statement is possible: "Cellulose solubility in water is higher after treatment with compound X than with compound Y (Smith 1997; Chu et al. 1999)." You can make an exception if something clearly was done in the past, e.g. , "Jones and El-Akhbar (1992) earlier reported contradictory findings."

4. New authors frequently pay inadequate attention to discussing their results. In particular, it is usually a good idea to compare and contrast your new results relative to past theoretical and empirical work by others. Depending on author preference, authors submitting to BioResources may either combine "Results and Discussion" or use separate "Results" and "Discussion" sections. In either case, the greatest value of scientific publications involves efforts to analyze, interpret, or prove your results relative to one or more hypotheses.

5. When writing your "Experimental" section, the main criterion to follow is that other researchers in the future should be able to repeat your work. It is perfectly satisfactory to just cite published procedures that you followed. However, you will need to carefully explain any procedures that were unique to your own study. In some cases, it may make sense to be more comprehensive in this section, depending on the novelty of the work or other considerations.

6. When writing the "Introduction," new authors should focus on providing sufficient context, based on the literature, so that readers somewhat unfamiliar with the field will be able to judge the relative importance of their new findings. Key articles, upon which the current work depends, should be emphasized. In a research article (as opposed to a review article) it is not necessary to include extensive explanations of concepts or facts that already are explained in other publications.

7. New authors are encouraged to write their Abstract after they have completed the rest of the writing. A good starting strategy is to use one or two sentences, each, to summarize the main thrust of each of the major sections of the article, e.g. Introduction, Experimental, Results, and Conclusions. Aim for the target word count, not the maximum permitted word count (see template for BioResources articles of different types).

8. Knowing that the title of your article will be the part that is read by the greatest number of people, it is a good idea to go back and scrutinize it again, after the rest of your writing it mostly done. Can the words be misinterpreted? Is the title readily understood by your intended audience? Does it capture people's attention? Does it adequately describe your topic?

9. Choose key words that adequately and succinctly represent the crux of your research article. Do they fairly cover the overall concepts, strategies, and methods used in the work? These words are very important, since they are among various pointers that are used to direct attention to your article.

10. Finally, choose your figures and tables carefully to make the most impact to our readers. Can you put in a graph or plot what you would have put in a table (or vice versa) that facilitates comprehension of the research? Can you overlay spectra instead of having separate spectra? Are the figures easily read or do our readers need a magnifying glass to see the data?

11. Authors are requested to use a consistent system of journal name abbreviations in the REFERENCES CITED section. It is OK to use full journal names, if this is done throughout the list. If it is decided to use abbreviations of journal names (which is preferred by many authors), please take your guidance from the following list (in PDF form) provided by the CASSI database system: Abbreviations of Selected Journals . For journals not on the list, please use an abbreviated form that is consistent with how the CASSI editors have abbreviated other journals.

Procedure for Sending a Revised Article after Peer Review

Please use E-MAIL to when returning a revised article, after the peer review process and the additional work needed to address the concerns expressed by the reviewers. Please put your article ID in the form "BioRes ####" in the subject line of your e-mail messages when coresponding about a given article. Here "####" should be replaced by the actual ID of your article, which you should be able to find by logging onto your OJS account or by looking at your previous e-mails concerning the article.

When preparing to send a revised version, please start the process by making a copy of the review reports (which will have been e-mailed to you by the editor), and insert your brief comments indicating how the authors decided to deal with each issue that was raised.  Then please use the “Review Version” of your article from your files as the starting point for preparing the revised document.  We would be grateful if you use highlighting or colored text to indicate items that are new or modified.  Then please e-mail your revised article and accompanying responses to

How to Pay (Page expenses)

Online Credit Card Contributions (recommended)

Donors are encouraged to use our automated system to make contributions by credit card. Authors can contribute toward the expenses of the publication process. Steps required in order to do this are as follows:

  1. Visit the BioResources journal online giving page (URL:
  2. Choose whether your funds should compensate for costs associated with your recently published article in BioResources, or if your funds are a gift in support of the journal or Department of Forest Biomaterials.
  3. Authors should enter the required information into the corresponding boxes: the surname of the first-listed author, the ID number of the published article, the volume number, the issue number, the pages, the requested amount (from this “Page Support” document), and the amount being sent with this transaction.
  4. You can optionally choose to send you payment in monthly, quarterly or yearly portions.
  5. There is a space if you wish to have your funds considered as a designated gift, such as funds sent in honor of a person other than yourself.
  6. Finally, there is a space if you want the acknowledgment letter (usually a PDF file on our letterhead, sent electronically to you) to contain specific information in its heading, for instance a specific person, institution, account number, or invoice number.

Authors at North Carolina State University please note: BioResources cannot accept payment from NC State Contract and Grant project ID's that begin with 5-XXXXX.   Please use another project ID to pay with.

Contributions by Mailed Check (recommended)

If you decide to mail a check, please mail it to the following address:

            Attention:  BioResources Fund
            NC State Natural Resources Foundation
            Campus Box 8010
            NC State University
            Raleigh, NC  27695-8010

Please write "BioResources Fund" in the memo area of your check.

And if you are making the contribution as an author who has published in the journal, please make a label like the following one on your check: “BioRes_4_2_376_Johnson” in the memo area. Note that the numbers in the label should correspond to the volume, issue, and first page of the published article, and “Johnson” should be replaced by the first author’s surname.  If you decide to include a cover letter, please indicate the same information in that letter, also indicating that the funds are to be considered as a donation. Related information about this is given at the "Author instructions" page.

How the Funds Will Be Used

Except for the work of the authors themselves, pre-editing and proofreading are two of the most important and time-consuming tasks required for the production of each new issue of BioResources.  Though much of the work associated with our journal is thanks to the generosity of reviewers, who volunteer their time and expertise, such input is mainly directed toward the quality of the science – not the writing and format.  The journal’s proofreading staff also handles the associated file management, website issues, and monitoring of input from the reviewers.

If gifts received exceed what is required to support the costs of proofreading and administering the journal, any excess funds have been committed to the support of scholarships for undergraduate students in our Department of Forest Biomaterials at NC State University.

Hardship Exception

The editors recognize that not all authors may be equally able to make a contribution to the expense of running the journal.  In fact, this is one of the reasons that we have adopted a policy of encouraging such contributions within one year of the publication date (see the preceding “page expense amounts”).  The purpose is to allow time for authors to make sure that suitable funds are available in their budget for the following year to contribute to page expenses.

It is a further policy of the editors to encourage submission of high-quality articles regardless of the financial status of authors and their institutions.  In case authors wish not to make a contribution, authors are asked to send an e-mail to the editors saying that no contribution will be made and whether a contribution might be expected at a future date.  Please, no such communication should be sent to the editors before the author(s) receive a PROOF copy of the article, indicating its acceptance for publication, because we do not want to entertain the possibility that such issues might affect acceptance of an article that has been submitted for publication.