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The minor in Health, Medicine, and Human Values offers students an opportunity to assess critically a range of issues that are fundamental to the health of individuals as well as to the well-being of society. From such an understanding, students as citizens will be more adequately prepared to meet these challenges in both private and public arenas. This minor should be a valuable asset for students pursuing careers in health care.


It is important to note that substitutions for the courses listed below will be permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Substitutions for PHI/STS 325, which is the core course for the minor, are never permitted. Because PHI/STS 325 is a required course for this and other minors, it typically fills up very quickly during registration period. Please plan your coursework for the minor carefully, and take PHI/STS 325 as soon as you can.

The Minor Adviser will determine whether courses transferred from other institutions qualify for the minor. No more than two transferred courses may count toward the minor. In addition, no more than two courses may be "double-counted" toward both the minor and the departmental requirements of a major.  (Note that for Human Biology majors, departmental requirements include all courses used for the "Biological Sciences" requirement AND all courses used for the "Human Biology Electives" requirement. Restricted Electives are, however, exempt from the double-count rule.)

The minor requires 15 hours as follows:

  1. PHI (STS) 325: Bio-Medical Ethics (3)

  2. Twelve hours from the following list of courses, with at least two courses from each group:

Group One: Humanities and Social Sciences Perspective on Health and Medicine

  • EC 437: Health Economics (3)
  • HI 322: Rise of Modern Sciences (3) OR
    HI 481: History of the Life Sciences (3)
  • PHI 221: Contemporary Moral Issues (3) OR
    PHI 375: Ethics (3) OR
    PHI 376: History of Ethics (3)
  • REL 473: Religion, Gender, and Reproductive Technologies (3)
  • SOC 381: Sociology of Medicine (3) OR
    SOC 465: Social Aspects of Mental Health (3)


Group Two: Science Perspective on Health and Medicine

  • GN 301: Genetics in Human Affairs (3) OR
    GN 311: Principles of Genetics (4) OR
    GN 414: Genes and Develoment (3)
  • MB 200: Microbiology and World Affairs (3) OR
    MB 411: Medical Microbiology (3)
  • NTR/ANS/FS 301: Human Nutrition (3) OR
    NTR 419: Human Nutrition in Health and Disease (3) OR
    NTR/FS 400: Principles of Human Nutrition (3)
  • HESM (PEH) 284: Women's Health Issues (2) OR
    HESM (PEH) 285: Personal Health (2) OR
    HESM (PEH) 286: Nutrition, Exercise, and Weight Control (2)
  • PSY 430: Biological Psychology (3)
  • BIO 488: Neurobiology (3)

Note that some of the courses listed above have prerequisites. A grade of C- or better is required in all courses counting toward the minor, with an overall average of 2.0. Note that some courses are two-credit courses and that a minimum of 15 hours of coursework are needed for this minor.


  1. As soon as you are ready to declare the minor, you should complete and sign the NC State “Declare a Minor” form (available here) and bring it to the Department’s Student Services Assistant, Ms. Stephanie Wilson, in Withers Hall, Room 340.
  2. Ms. Wilson will obtain the required departmental signatures and submit the form to Registration and Records on your behalf so that a minor degree audit can be added to your record.
  3. You should consult with the Minor Adviser, Dr. Gary L. Comstock, during each registration period to ensure that you are making headway toward completing the requirements of the minor.
  4. After registering for your last semester and before submitting your on-line application to graduate, you should complete a “Minor Certification Form” with Ms. Stephanie Wilson in Withers Hall, Room 340.