National Educational Technology Standards for Students
1. Creativity and Innovation
Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. Students:
a. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
b. create original works as a means of personal or group expression.
c. use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues.
d. identify trends and forecast possibilities.
2. Communication and Collaboration
Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students:
a. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts or others employing a variety of digital
environments and media.
b. communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
c. develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of
d. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.
3. Research and Information Fluency
Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students:
a. plan strategies to guide inquiry.
b. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
c. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks.
d. process data and report results.
4. Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving & Decision-Making
Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources. Students:
a. identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
b. plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
c. collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
d. use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.
5. Digital Citizenship
Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior. Students:
a. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.
b. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity.
c. demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning.
d. exhibit leadership for digital citizenship.
6. Technology Operations and Concepts
Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and
a. understand and use technology systems.
b. select and use applications effectively and productively.
c. troubleshoot systems and applications.
d. transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies.
Note. From “Educational technology standards for students,” by International Society for Technology in Education, 2007, Washington, DC: NCSS. Copyright 2007 by ISTE. Reprinted with permission.
Appendix B: National Council for the Social Studies Middle Grades
Civic Ideals and Practices Strand
X. Civic Ideals and Practices
Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic, so that the learner can:
a. examine the origins and continuing influence of key ideals of the democratic republican form of government, such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, and the rule of law;
b. examine the origins and continuing influence of key ideals of the democratic republican form of government, such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, and the rule of law;
c. identify and interpret sources and examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizens;
d. locate, access, analyze, organize, and apply information about selected public issues — recognizing and explaining multiple points of view;
e. practice forms of civic discussion and participation consistent with the ideals of citizens in a democratic republic;
f. explain and analyze various forms of citizen action that influence public policy decisions;
g. identify and explain the roles of formal and informal political actors in influencing and shaping public policy and decision making;
h. analyze the influence of diverse forms of public opinion on the development of public policy and decision making;
i. analyze the effectiveness of selected public policies and citizen behaviors in realizing the stated ideals of a democratic republican form of government;
j. explain the relationship between policy statements and action plans used to address issues of public concern;
k. examine strategies designed to strengthen the "common good," which consider a range of options for citizen action.
Note. From “Expectations of excellence: Curriculum standards for social studies,” by National Council for the Social Studies, 1994, Silver Spring, Maryland: NCSS. Copyright 1994 by NCSS. Reprinted with permission.