Learning Objective #1
Understanding scientific inquiry and the scientific method
probably using this tutorial because you are taking a science laboratory
course. When you are in that lab you are expected to think
like a scientist and act like a scientist, so it's a good idea from
the beginning to talk about what that means--to think like a scientist
and act like a scientist.
are some questions to think about: (answer
them in your own words)
What is a scientist?
What do scientists do?
What does it mean
to think like scientists?
you are done, click here for more ideas.
The word "science" comes from the Latin verb "scire" which
in English means "to know."
Scientists' primary goal is to know, to uncover, to discover,
to find out something.
Scientists wonder, explore, observe, predict, investigate, infer,
reflect, and communicate what they learn.
One helpful way of understanding what science is all about is to
think of it as an act of inquiry.
Anytime you are asking questions, you are engaging in inquiry. When inquiry is applied to science, it is
known as scientific inquiry. In addition to posing questions, someone engaged in scientific inquiry is also
observing, examining, analyzing, and collecting important information about what they are investigating. Scientific
inquiry is probably the most important part of the science process: it reflects curiosity and gets at the essence
Think of something youíve always wanted to know about,
something that really intrigues you. Then, write down a series of questions
about it that you would like to answer. Click
here when you're done.
As a scientist, you have taken the first step in scientific inquiry: you have identified questions you would
like to answer. Scientists usually start out with a series of questions or a problem they want to solve. Those
questions, like the questions you formulated above, come from observation and are based on your knowledge of the
world around you. Scientists usually refine their initial questions so that they can be answered by scientific
investigation or experimentation. Specific scientific questions, and the means used in finding the answers, will
be specific to a particular field of study.
Now that you are familiar with scientific inquiry, you are ready to
explore it in the context of the scientific method. Scientific inquiry
is grounded in the process of the scientific method.
Before we explore the details of
the scientific method, let's find out how much you already know about
the scientific method. On a sheet of paper, write the words "scientific
method" inside a big circle in the middle of the page. Think about
everything that comes to mind with respect to the scientific method
and connect your ideas to the main circle by drawing lines extending
outward from the circle. It should look something like this:
the ideas you generated above and try to organize them into a series
of steps you think scientists take when solving problems or answering
here when you're done
Compare your ideas to the ones below. Write down anything that is missing.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD: An Overview
Identify a problem you would like to solve (this is the central point).
- Formulate a hypothesis: A hypothesis is a scientist's best estimation, based on scientific
knowledge and assumptions, of what the answer to the problem is. It must be specific and testable.
- Test the hypothesis: Design an experiment that proceeds to answer the specific problem.
- Collect and analyze the data: Record the data you collect from your experiment. If the data
shows evidence to support the hypothesis, then you accept the hypothesis. If the data shows evidence
that contradicts the hypothesis, then you reject the hypothesis. (NOTE: Hypotheses can only be supported
or rejected, never proven.)
- Make conclusions: At this point, you bring everything together. What does it all mean? You may
identify a new problem or start all over again with the original problem. In either case, you will need to
report your findings. This is where scientific writing becomes important.
information on the scientific method
The scientific method revolves around the identification
of a problem or question that needs to be answered.
scientific method is a learning tool you can use to help you learn
the process of science.
though they may not refer to it as "the scientific method," most scientists
go through a series of steps similar to those described in the scientific
method when conducting their investigations.
mentioned above, scientists usually start out with a problem or question
that can be phrased as a hypothesis or series of hypotheses.
a hypothesis is formulated, a scientist will usually design an experiment
or study to test the hypothesis.
A hypothesis can only be supported or rejected, never proven. It may
be distinguished from a scientific theory or a scientific
Scientific theory: An explanation of why and how a specific natural phenomenon occurs. A lot of hypotheses
are based on theories. In turn, theories may be redefined as new hypotheses are tested. Examples of theories:
Newton's Theory of Gravitation, Darwin's Theory of Evolution, Mendel's Theory of Inheritance, Einstein's Theory
Scientific law: A logical, mathematical statement describing a consistency that applies to all members of a
broad class of phenomena when specific conditions are met. Examples of scientific laws: Faraday's Law of electromagnetic
induction, Coulomb's Law of electrostatic attraction, Dalton's Law of partial pressures, Boyle's Gas Law.
Everyone uses steps similar
to those of the scientific method when solving problems in everyday
life. Think about some ways you've used the scientific method in the
past week. Start out with a problem or question. Next, try to formulate
a hypothesis. What experiment or test would you use to check your hypothesis?
here for some ideas
PARTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PAPER
Abstract summarizes the whole article.
Introduction establishes the context for the research: the area in which
the research takes place, the research problem, the importance of the research, and the guiding
question of hypothesis.
Materials and Methods describes the research procedure. The
Results reports the outcomes of the research procedure.
Discussion interprets the results, explaining them and comparing them
to the results of other experiments.
Conclusion focuses the reader on what is important about the research: its
contribution to the larger area of study. The References lists the sources used in the article.
Now that you are somewhat familiar with the scientific
method, try practicing how to formulate hypotheses and design experiments
by reacting to different real-life scenarios.
When practicing the scientific method, most people are engaged
Scientific thinking, like critical thinking, is used during problem solving, but in a scientific
context. Here are some important elements of scientific thinking:
Empirical evidence: when thinking scientifically, you rely on evidence that is tangible (can be perceived
by the senses and anyone can experience it)
- Inductive logic: a form of thinking in which you reason from evidence to a general conclusion drawn from
- Skepticism: constant questioning and examining of evidence
Go back to the scenarios above, and review
your responses. Think about how you arrived at the hypotheses and experimental
designs you wrote above. Try to identify your line of thinking. Was
it consistent with scientific thinking? Write down your ideas.
Continue on to Objective
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welcome your feedback!
Rev. EW 8/18/03
Ph.D., Science Communication, Dept. of English
Eric N. Wiebe, Ph.D., Graphic Communications Program,
Dept. of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education
Miriam Ferzli, Ph.D., Post-Doctoral Associate, Science
Trina Allen, Graduate Research Assistant, Science Education
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Programmer: Monty Taylor